During December 2006, an archaeological survey was conducted at Khirbat Zunuqla, at the foot of Giv‘at Mashav (Permit No. A-4984; map ref. 20736–73/63428–53). The survey, undertaken on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority and underwritten by Mr. Y. Shoshani, was performed by A. Nagorsky, D. Ein-Mor and M. Birkenfeld, with the assistance of L. Barda and D. Levy (GPS).
The top of the hill and the slopes descending in all directions were surveyed. Fifteen sites were discovered and building remains, caves, cisterns, rock-cut installations, a stone clearance heap, rock-cuttings and terrace walls were documented (Fig. 1).
Buildings. Remains of an army camp that probably damaged many of the antiquities were found. Remains of a building (1; Fig. 2) were discovered on a high mound, which was apparently partly formed by army works. Remains of ancient walls that protruded slightly from the ground were noted.
Caves. A rock-hewn cave (2; 3 × 4 m; Figs. 3, 4) whose opening faced south and its top was a stone-built arch (min. width 1.5 m) was documented. The cave was probably used as a dwelling or for storage, possibly as part of the adjacent built complex. It was not possible to determine the plan and dimensions of Cave 7 due to the collapse of its eastern side. Cave 8 consisted of two chambers and was probably natural. It was enlarged by quarrying and its opening (width c. 2 m) faced south.
Cisterns. Four cisterns (3–6), whose interiors were coated with hydraulic plaster, were discovered. Cisterns 3 and 4 had round openings (diam. c. 1 m) and were connected to each other via an underground system. Cistern 5 was bell-shaped; remains of construction in the northern part of its opening possibly belonged to a covering structure or an ancient well opening.
Rock-cuttings. Remains of rock-cuttings, severely damaged by the construction in the army base, were discovered at two sites (9, 10), as well as a scattering of potsherds from the Roman and Byzantine periods.
Cupmark. A cupmark (11; diam. 0.37 m, depth 0.12 m) hewn in a rock block (3.0 × 5.5 m) was discovered.
Stone Clearance Heap. The heap (12; c. 6 × 8 m) was built of small and medium stones and extended down the slope to the east.
Terrace Walls. The walls (13–15; preserved height c. 1 m) were founded on bedrock; their bottom parts were built of large fieldstones and the top parts consisted of small fieldstones. The width (0.8 m at Sites 13 and 15, 2.0 m at Site 14) of the terrace walls varied in accordance with the topography.