A simple rock-hewn winepress was excavated in Area A (Fig. 2). The winepress had a round treading floor (L100; diam. 1.2 m, height of edges 0.14–0.20 m), in whose southern side a rock-hewn drainage channel (length c. 0.1 m) linked it to a round, bell-shaped collecting vat (L101; diam. 1 m, depth 0.55 m), which did not have a sump in its floor.
Two simple winepresses were discovered in the northern part of Area C. They were hewn on top of a high bedrock outcrop. The eastern winepress consisted of a square treading floor, haphazardly hewn (L303; 1.2 × 1.2 m, height of edges c. 0.1 m; Fig. 3); a rock-cut drainage channel (length c. 0.1 m) in its northern side led to a round bell-shaped collecting vat (L304; diam. 0.8 m, depth 0.6 m), without a sump. The western winepress had a treading floor without raised edges (L305) that sloped to the north, toward a rectangular collecting vat (0.9 × 1.2 m, depth 0.4 m), at whose bottom was a small sump (diam. 0.23 m, depth 0.13 m).
A square hewn pit (L301; 1.2 × 1.3 m, depth 1.2 m; Fig. 4) was exposed in Area C. Three rock-cut steps along its western side descended to its bottom. In all likelihood, the pit was meant to be a collecting vat of a winepress but its quarrying was never completed.
A wall (W203; Figs. 5, 6), oriented north–south and built of medium and large fieldstones on top of a natural bedrock terrace, was exposed in Area B. The quality of the wall’s construction was relatively poor and it had survived two courses high. It was intended to retain the soil fill located to its east for the purpose of cultivation; another section of the wall was discovered in Area C. Wall 203 was adjoined in the east by Wall 210 and in the west by Wall 209. These walls were probably used to delimit cultivation plots; they were built of large fieldstones set on top of brown soil, unlike the terrace wall whose foundation was placed on the bedrock.
Mechanical equipment was used to expose a hewn pit (L313; diam. 2.5 m, depth 4.1 m; Figs. 7, 8) in Area C. Signs of rock-cuttings were discerned in its northern and eastern sides. At the time of excavation, the pit was entirely filled with small stones, probably intended for burning to produce lime; however, the lime production process was not completed. A layer of ash (thickness 0.5 m) on the bottom of the pit was exposed in a probe, dug with the aid of a backhoe.
Stone Clearance Heaps
Two concentrations of medium and large stones (L102, L103; diam. c. 3 m; Fig. 9) were exposed on top of bedrock outcrops in Area A; they were probably a by-product of clearing the nearby cultivation plots.
A stone quarry (L302) was exposed in Area C. Signs of building-stones detachment were visible on top of the bedrock. Judging by the surviving edges of the rock after the quarrying, it was determined that the hewn stones were 0.2–0.3 m high (Figs. 10, 11).
A square was opened at the southern end of the excavation; large fieldstones and boulders without any archaeological context (L308; depth below surface c. 0.3 m) were exposed. Beneath the stones was a layer of soil (thickness 2 m) that was excavated down to bedrock.
A scant amount of potsherds was recovered from the soil in the southern and southeastern parts of the excavation, including a fry-pan (Fig. 12:1) dating to the Middle Ages, jars (Fig. 12:2–4) from the Hellenistic and Roman periods and a juglet (Fig. 12:5) from the Middle Bronze 2 Age.
Based on the excavation finds, the examined area was used for farming and it joins the other agricultural areas that had been exposed in previous excavations at the site. It turns out that the agricultural hinterland of Tel Bahan was quite large; the multitude of winepresses indicates it was used mainly for growing vineyards. No settlement remains were discovered in the excavation, and none were found in the numerous probe trenches; hence, the settlement was situated only on the tell and the areas at its northern foot were used solely for farming.