1. A heap of basalt stones (diam. 2 m, preserved height 1 m) surrounded by a foundation (diam. 2.5 m) of roughly hewn basalt stones.
2. A complex of enclosure walls (length 34 m, width 1 m, preserved height 1 m), built of three courses of basalt boulders and aligned north–south. It seems that the enclosure walls were used as animal pens.
3. Remains of the village Khirbat es-Sabana, including four buildings concentrated on the hilltop, with fenced enclosures around them. The buildings (average dimensions 8×10 m) comprise one or two rooms. They are built of roughly hewn basalt and limestone and are preserved ten courses high (1.7 m). A rectangular compound is located north and east of the buildings, in the direction of the saddle. It is enclosed with basalt boulders and includes several units; several small worn potsherds and natural flint were gathered.
4. Elliptical animal pens (average diam. c. 30 m) enclosed with fieldstones and roughly hewn building stones. Numerous potsherds that date from the end of the Roman and the Early Byzantine periods were found.
5. Enclosure walls were found on the entire eastern hilltop. These are built of large basalt stones (1.0×1.5 m), preserved two–three courses high (0.5 m) and probably belonged to the village on the hilltop (Site 6).
6. Continuation of the Khirbat es-Sabana village, including some ten buildings (average dimensions 8×10 m). The walls, preserved five-six courses high (1.8 m), were built of basalt and limestone (0.5×0.5 m) that are of poorer quality than those of the buildings at Site 3. Several buildings in the southern part of village have a complex plan with up to four rooms; these structures are not as well preserved. A cave hewn in limestone bedrock was surveyed below one of these buildings (Site 30); based on its plan it seems this was a Byzantine burial cave, adapted for use as part of the building above it. A limestone architectural element (0.7×1.2 m) is incorporated in the corner of one of the buildings (Site 27). The stone has drafted margins and a depression and is probably an entrance threshold in secondary use. Next to a building in the south of the village is a shaped limestone (Site 26) that was used as a weight in an olive press, alongside which are other architectural elements. Some 10 m south of the settlement is a rock-hewn cistern, in which a fig tree is growing (Site 28). Visible around the cistern (diam. 2 m) are rock-cuttings in the bedrock surface, wall foundations and ashlars arranged around it.
7. A farming terrace wall (length 13 m), built of two courses and aligned east–west.
8. An olive press with a rock-hewn treading floor (1.6×1.7 m; Fig. 2) with a depression (diam. 0.5 m) in its center for placing the baskets that contained the crushed olives. A niche in its northern side was intended for the beam that used to press the baskets. A collecting vat (1.0×1.4 m) whose southern side is curved is hewn south of the treading floor. Southwest of the collecting vat is a square rock-cutting (0.5×0.5×0.5 m) and several smaller rock-cuttings (0.1×0.1 m) that were probably used as slots for posts that supported a roof.
9. A cave inside a hollow in the surface, surrounded by a fence that was three courses high and formed an enclosure (diam. 12 m). The cave is hewn in nari and forms a room (6 sq m) filled with alluvium and basalt stones that derived from the fence.
10. A cave hewn in nari (Fig. 3). The entrance is flanked on the east and west by a pair of walls (preserved length 1.6 m), built of three–four courses, forming a corridor. The low cave opening faces north in a flattened and very smooth wall, which has a recess for a bolt in the northern doorjamb. The cave’s interior (c. 9 sq. m) is vaulted. A niche filled with alluvium is located in the eastern side of the cave. The narrow interior of the cave, its low opening and the access to it indicate that this is a tomb, which was utilized in secondary use as a shelter for animals.
11. A cave hewn in nari whose ceiling had collapsed. Numerous fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Late Roman and Early Byzantine, Mamluk and Ottoman periods were found in its vicinity.
12. A rock-hewn cave with a collapsed ceiling, in which a fig tree is growing. Numerous fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Late Roman, Early Byzantine, Mamluk and Ottoman periods were found in its vicinity.
13. A building, of which two rooms (8×12 m; Fig. 4) have survived. The walls (width 0.7 m, height 1.75 m) were preserved ten courses high. Numerous fragments of pottery vessels were found in the vicinity of the building.
14. A cistern lined with basalt and limestone building stones. Its opening is rectangular (0.5×1.5 m) and a fig tree is growing inside it.
15. A cistern located c. 5 m from Site 14. Its opening (diam. 2 m) is lined with basalt and limestone building stones.
16. A cave with an opening that faces south. The opening is enclosed by walls on the east, north and west, which form an enclosure preserved ten courses high (2 m). A chalk-hewn façade in the entrance to the cave was made smooth and a rectangular frame is cut in it, leading to a corridor (length 1.5 m). The continuation of the cave is blocked by alluvium and stones. It seems that the cave was originally used as a tomb in the Byzantine period.
17. Three of the village’s buildings that are scattered across the northern slope of the spur.
18. Two caves with openings that are blocked with alluvium and stones, which appear to be adjacent tombs hewn in a chalk façade.
19. A Moslem cemetery that consists of more than twenty tombs; several tombs are built as stone heaps with a flat stone that stands out prominently as a gravestone. Particularly prominent is a tomb, oriented east–west, which is built of hard limestone ashlars (Fig. 5).
20. Building foundations and a pit (diam. 1 m) whose opening is blocked by basalt and limestone building stones. A very large quantity of potsherds dating from the Late Roman, Early Byzantine, Mamluk and Ottoman periods was documented in the vicinity.
21. Rock-cuttings in nari bedrock, including several separating channels that point to the removal of stone blocks.
22. Remains of rock-cuttings in nari bedrock; nearby, a single course of a wall foundation oriented east–west, at the entrance to a rock-hewn cave whose ceiling had collapsed.
23. A pit or cave whose ceiling collapsed, and a large fig tree is growing in its center. Limestone building stones are visible around the opening. Next to the eastern edge of the pit is a smooth flat chalk surface with twenty-four depressions (diam. 1.5–3.0 cm), arranged in seven rows and four columns (Fig. 6). The surface appears suitable for use in the traditional board game known as “mancala”.
24. An agricultural installation, probably a winepress, comprising a square treading floor (1.5×1.5 m) hewn in hard limestone and a channel that empties into a square collecting vat (0.5×0.5×0.5 m) hewn northwest of the floor.
25. A large cistern (min. diam. 3.5 m) surrounded by architectural remains and very dense vegetation.
29. A concentration of five cupmarks (diam. 0.4 m) hewn in a smoothed and worked chalk surface.
31. A cistern blocked with building stones.
The evidence found in the survey is indicative of an ancient settlement that had its beginnings in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods and continued into the Middle Ages until the modern era. It seems that the agricultural installations, such as the olive and winepress, can be dated to the beginning of the settlement in the Roman–Byzantine periods, the tombs to the Byzantine period and the buildings standing in situ to the modern era. The cisterns, rock-cuttings and other surveyed installations are difficult to date, but in all likelihood, they were used during the life span of the settlement.