Iron Age Walls (Strata 8–9). A curved wall (W15030) consisting of an eastern face built of roughly hewn stones and a western face of fieldstones was exposed in the center of the excavation area. The wall extended west beyond the limits of the excavation. The southeastern corner of a building (W14048, W15047) was uncovered in the northern part of the excavation area that continued to the north and west, outside the bounds of the excavation. Whole vessels tentatively dated to the Iron Age II, including an intact lamp and several store jars, were discovered in the building. The wall of a curved installation (W15019) exposed in a previous excavation (Reich and Shukron 2011:79) was visible on the surface just east of the corner.
Debris Layers from the Early Roman Period (Stratum 4). Layers of debris (Fig. 2: Section 1-1) were discovered throughout the excavation area and above the Iron Age remains. The debris consisted mainly of fragments of pottery vessels from the first century CE, including cooking pots, store jars, flasks and knife-pared lamps, as well as coins tentatively dated (prior to cleaning) to the Second Temple period, stone vessels from the end of the Second Temple period, sling stones, stone weights and numerous bones. Several residual artifacts were found in the layers of debris, originated from earlier strata covered by the debris layers; these included handles bearing a variety of stamped impressions: ‘LMLK’, a rosette, ‘YRŠLM’ and Rhodian. A stamped impression of a lion on a jar handle from the Babylonian period is of special note (Lipschits and Vanderhooft 2014:49–50). No secondary phases were discerned in the debris layers.
Recently, in Area D in the City of David, c. 200 m south of the current excavation area, similar debris layers (Gadot 2014) were exposed that included artifacts dating solely to the first century CE. Unlike those layers, the finds from the debris layers in the current excavation do not date to the same period, and they include earlier objects from the Iron Age II (e.g., ‘LMLK’ handles) and items from the second–first centuries BCE (e.g., stamped Rhodian impressions).
A Building from the Middle Ages (13043; Stratum 2). A well-preserved building was exposed in the southern part of the excavation area whose construction penetrated the debris layers of the Early Roman period; excavation of the structure was begun in the past (Szanton and Uziel 2015). The building was disturbed in the modern era by construction that was conducted to its east. Three levels of tamped stones, one above the other (Fig. 3), were exposed; these were delimited on the east by a wall (W15026). A partition wall (W15006) was erected above the upper level of stones. No finds were discovered in the excavation that could aid in dating the building or in understanding how it was used. The building was dated to the Mamluk period in the previous excavation carried out there.
The remains discovered in the excavation are similar to those revealed in the nearby excavation carried out in 2013 and 2014. In both excavations, Iron Age II architectural remains, layers of debris that accumulated there from the Early Roman period and remains of a medieval building were exposed on the eastern slope of the City of David. The exposure of the building from the Middle Ages is in keeping with the resumption of activity on the eastern slope of the City of David and the renewed use of the Gihon spring during that time (Reich and Shukron 2007).