Phase II comprised a circular installation (L108; diameter 1.1 m; Fig. 4) enclosed by a wall (W115). A bowl, a pithoi and jars dated to the transition from MB IIA to the MB IIB (Figs. 8:1, 9:6, 10, 13; below).
Phase I comprised a rectangular building (4.5 × 13.0 m; Fig. 5) whose walls cut into the circular installation. The building had a central room (L105), which was exposed in its entirety. It was surrounded by three partially preserved spaces (L106, L107, L109). The walls of Room 105 (W103, W104, W110, W112) were built on the bedrock and were preserved to the height of two courses. Gaps between the bedrock and the bottom course of the walls were filled with stones to form a uniform level that provided a bedding for the building (Fig. 6). Walls 110 and 112 are particularly broad (thickness 1.2–1.6 m), whereas W104 is relatively narrow (thickness 0.7 m) and probably served as an internal partition wall. A layer of dark soil with pottery above it (Fig. 8:9, 16; below) was exposed inside the room. A grinding stone (Fig. 11:4; below) was found in Space 106, and two natural depressions in the bedrock were converted into cupmarks (L117, L118) through widening and deepening. The south face of a wall (W119) was exposed in Space 109, and Space 107 was partially excavated. The building was dated based on the pottery (below) to the transition between the MB IIA and MB IIB up to the end of MB II. Above the walls of the building, especially above W104, and on the surface were potsherds from the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age IIA (below). A rock-hewn installation (L114; diam. c. 1 m, depth 0.6 m; Fig. 7) exposed c. 7 m north of the building contained fragments of an MB II jar at the bottom (Fig. 9:12; below).
The pottery is dated to MB IIA – early in LB I, and to the end of Iron Age I and Iron Age IIA. Among the pottery finds, storage vessels (jars and pithoi) and kraters are most notable. A few stone artifacts were also recovered.
Pottery from the MB IIA – Beginning of LB I. Several bowl types were found: globular bowls (Fig. 8:1–3), dating from the MB IIA and the transition to the MB IIB; a carinated bowl (Fig. 8:4) that is an imitation of an eggshell bowl, dated to the MB IIB and the beginning of LB I; bowl bases (Fig. 8:5, 6); a pedestal base (Fig. 8:7) typical of an MB II carinated bowl; and a knob handle (Fig. 8:8) of an MB IIA bowl.
The most notable type of krater found has straight ledge handles (Fig. 8:9–11); this type first appeared in Yoqneʻam at the beginning of MB II, and its production declined significantly toward the end of that period (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005:270). Kraters from the end of MB II were also discovered (Fig. 8:12, 13).
About 90% of the cooking pots came from Space 109. The pots are carinated (Fig. 9:1–5), and some have a gutter rim. Pots of this type have been found throughout the Levant and are dated from the MB IIB to the beginning of the Late Bronze Age (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005:276, Type CP C).
Pithoi were found mostly near Installation 108 (Phase II) and above it, along the top course of W112 (Phase I). They comprise three types: barrel-shaped pithoi with thickened rims (Fig. 9:6, 7), wide-mouthed pithoi (Fig. 9:8) and elliptical pithoi (Fig. 9:9). Pithoi of these types were found in the past at sites dating from the end of MB IIA and the MB IIB (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005
:285). Barrel-shaped pithoi were discovered at sites from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age as well (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005
:286, Type PII). Pithoi bases were also recovered (Fig. 9:10, 11).
The assemblage included Canaanite-type jars (Fig. 9:12, 13), which were common in the MB IIA but became less frequent toward the end of MB II. Also found were jars from the MB IIA as well as from the MB IIB, but the latter are fewer in number and not as widely distributed (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005
:292). Most of the jars have a concave base, but a few have a flat base (Fig. 9:17).
An MB II lamp (Fig. 9:18) found on top of W104 retained traces of soot.
A similar assemblage of pottery, dating from the MB IIA to the beginning of LB I, was recovered in the past at Tel Yoqne‘am (Ben Ami and Livneh 2005).
Pottery from End of Iron Age I
– Iron Age IIA
. Pottery found in the upper loci in Room 105 and in Space 109, as well as above Walls 103 and 104, included cooking pots (Fig. 10:1–3) characteristic of the beginning of Iron Age II, but appear at the end of Iron Age I in Stratum XVII at Tel Yoqne‘am and at Ta‘anakh (Mazar 2015:12, 13); a krater (Fig. 10:4) characteristic of sites in the north of Israel in the Iron Age I – the beginning of Iron Age IIA (Mazar 2015:11); a krater (Fig. 10:5) from the beginning of Iron Age IIA; a jar from the end of Iron Age I (Fig. 10:6), similar to one found in Stratum H9 at Megiddo, dated to this period (Mazar 2015:15); a jar (Fig. 10:7) resembling a type that appears in Iron Age IIA assemblages at sites along the northern coast (Lehmann 2015:119); a decorated fragment of a jug from the end of Iron Age I (Fig. 10:8), resembling one recovered from Stratum H9 at Megiddo (Mazar 2015:15); and a strainer jug (Fig. 10:9) from the Iron Age I.
Stone Artifacts. Basalt pestles (Fig. 11:1, 2), a crushing stone (Fig. 11:3) and a grinding stone (Fig. 11:4) were recovered. The artifacts were used to crush food and grind grain, and they are perfectly smooth and shiny from use.
The storage vessels from the circular installation suggest that it was used as a granary. Along with other granaries previously discovered to the north of the excavated area, it corroborates the assumption that the site and its environs were used to store grain. The grain was most probably supplied to one of the coastal tell settlements that flourished during the MB IIA and IIB. At some stage, the granary was abandoned, and a building was built over it. The granary may have fallen into disuse following an economic crisis that affected the region late in the MB II and led to the abandonment of Tel Kabri (Feig 2017
), although it is not clear whether the use of granaries ceased throughout the region. The building constructed over the granary enjoyed a commanding view from the hill over a wide expanse of land near the coastal strip. Its broad walls may indicate that it was a stronghold that controlled the farmland below, like that at H
a (Covello-Paran 2008
), and the nearby supply routes. The pottery from the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age IIA attests to the continuous settlement of the site during these periods.