During June 2001 a salvage excavation was conducted in a limekiln at Horbat Teliliya (Permit No. A-3433*; map ref. NIG 21975/63509; OIG 16975/13509), in the wake of development work and the paving of Highway 4. The excavation, on behalf of the Antiquities Authority and funded by the Moriah Company, was directed by R. Avner, with the assistance of A. Hajian (surveying) and N. Zak and I. Berin (drafting).
The bottom part of the limekiln was hewn in bedrock, whereas its upper part was built of medium and large stones (upper inner diam. 7 m, average preserved height 4.9 m; Figs. 1, 2). The exterior face of the kiln’s wall (width c. 1.3 m) consisted of large, neatly dressed stones, with medium- sized stones and soil in between them. The wall’s inner face (thickness 0.1–0.3 m) was lined with small and medium-sized stones bonded with a very hard, dark red material, containing large white inclusions. Two channels were discovered in the western side of the kiln––the southern channel (L3) was used for supplying fuel into the kiln and the northern channel (L4) provided ventilation to fan the flames. The preserved entry to Channel 3 (length 4.2 m, width 0.65 m, height 0.66 m) consisted of two walls built of large, carefully dressed stones and roofed with large stones. The channel's floor was bedrock that sloped eastward to the bottom of the kiln. Only a segment of the channel was examined due to safety precautions; its outlet at the bottom of the kiln was not excavated. The northern wall of Channel 3, preserved to three courses high (0.83 m), was shared with Channel 4 that also utilized bedrock as its floor. The raw material for the limekiln was brought in from the quarry east of Nahal Zofim.