A wall (W103; height 1.5 m; Fig. 3), aligned northwest-southeast and built of medium and large limestone in dry construction, was exposed in the southwestern corner of the square. The western side of the wall had a slight inclination toward the west, and that side was probably the inside of a building or an installation. The accumulations to the southwest of the wall (L105, L120, L140; Fig. 3: Section 2-2) consisted of brown earth overlying sandy brown soil mixed with body sherds of vessels dating to the Roman and Late Byzantine periods. Another wall (W121; length 4.65 m, width 0.45 m, depth 0.9 m; Fig. 3: Section 1-1) was discovered c. 2.5 m east of W103. It was oriented northwest-southeast and built of medium and large limestone in dry construction. The northern end of W121 formed a corner with a third wall (W142) that was partially exposed and whose foundation was set on sandy soil (L122).
A level of mud-brick material mixed with charcoal and black glazed slag that had been fired at a very high temperature (L106; Fig. 3, Section 2-2) was discovered at a higher elevation in the square’s northeastern corner. The mud-brick material continued to the north and east beyond the limits of the square. The slag discovered above and alongside the level of mud-brick material was kiln debris and it seems that the level was a potter’s kiln or a furnace for smelting metal.
A circular pit (L124, inside diam. 2 m; Figs. 4, 5), dug into the hamra soil and lined with small and medium fieldstones without mortar, was discovered in the eastern half of the square. A row of well-dressed stones was exposed to its west. The accumulation inside the pit was brown soil (L125) mixed with fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods.
Two pits, a northern (L108, diam. 0.5 m) and a southern one (L123), dug in the hamra soil in the western half of the square were discovered. The accumulations (L123, L114; Fig. 4: Section 1-1) in the pits contained body sherds of vessels dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods. The pits were presumably used for storage.
Wall remains and a level of burnt material (Figs. 6, 7) were exposed. A wall (W104; length 6 m, width 0.5 m, depth of the burnt layer 0.4 m) built of small and medium fieldstones without mortar was preserved two courses high; its foundation was set on brown soil (L127, L113; Fig. 6: Section 1-1). The wall was adjoined from the east by another wall (W117; exposed length 1 m, width 0.6 m, preserved depth 0.26–0.40 m) that formed a corner with it. Wall 117 was built similar to W104. A level of burnt material (L126; thickness c. 0.1 m, width c. 0.3 m) was discovered in the corner of the building beneath its foundation. Numerous body sherds dating to the Ottoman period were collected from the accumulations above and below the remains. A layer of hamra soil devoid of finds (L133, L134; Fig. 6: Section 1-1) was excavated beneath an accumulation of brown soil.
A channel (L128; length 4 m, width 0.4 m; Figs. 8, 9) was exposed in the eastern half of the square. Its sides were built of a row of medium-sized fieldstones in dry construction. The absence of a floor might indicate that the channel was used to drain a cesspit. The roof of the channel was not preserved. Based on the finds in the blockage of the channel (L136), which included roof tiles, bottle fragments and a 10 prutot coin of the State of Israel minted in 1949, it seems that the channel went out of use at the end of the British Mandate.
The ceramic finds recovered from the excavation date to the Iron Age, and the Late Roman, Byzantine, Early Islamic (first half of the eighth century CE) and Ottoman periods. The pottery included bowls (Fig. 10:1, 2) and a cooking pot fragment (Fig. 10:3) from the Iron Age; bowls with a grooved rim (Fig. 10:4–7), jars (Fig. 10:8–12) and body sherds of cooking pots and juglets (not drawn) from the Roman period (second–third centuries CE), which were mostly found in the accumulations in the pits that were dug into the hamra soil (Sq K4), as well as next to the walls in Sq M3. Accumulations adjacent to the walls and installations exposed throughout the excavation area contained potsherds dating to the Byzantine period (fifth–sixth centuries CE), including bowls (Fig. 10:13–16), among them bowls imported from northern Syria (Fig. 10:13) and Cyprus (Fig. 10:15, 16), cooking pots (Fig. 10:17–19), a juglet (Fig. 10:20) and a lid (Fig. 10:21). Numerous body sherds of mostly jars (not drawn) that could not be dated were also found.
The assemblage dating to the end of the Byzantine–beginning of the Early Islamic period (first half of the eighth century CE) consisted of mostly jars (Fig. 11:1–3) that were found in accumulations throughout the excavation area. Fragments of pottery vessels attributed to the Late Ottoman period were found on the surface of the excavation and in the accumulations around the wall remains in Squares C7 and M8; these included bowls (Fig. 11:4–7), a cup (Fig. 11:8) and an assemblage of jars and cooking pots (not drawn).
Three coins were discovered: a worn modern coin found above the burnt level (L126), a coin from the year 1949 (Sq M8) found above the walls of the channel (L128) and a coin dating to the reign of Emperor Hostilian (251 CE; Caesarea mint; IAA 137524) that was found above W121.
Nine artifacts were found, all made of dark brown flint from the Mishash formation. Most of the artifacts were intermittently covered with a layer of light gray patina. The flint assemblage included five flakes, one primary flake, a broken blade, two pieces of debitage belonging to bifacial tools and one large core (flakes 56%; bifacial debitage 22%; cores 11%). The core (4.0×5.5×6.5 cm), which has an irregular shape and five striking platforms, was used to produce flakes and blades/bladelets. The debitage probably resulted from renewing the cutting edge of adzes, based on the size and the lens-shaped cross-section. Such a large percentage of debitage involving the renewing of the cutting edge indicates intensive use of bifacial tools, probably adzes, which might attest to household-related agriculture and industry.
A fragment of a quern and a loom weight were discovered in Sq K4 (Fig. 11:9).
The remains exposed at the site date to several periods, the Late Roman and Byzantine periods (second–third centuries and fifth–sixth centuries CE) and the Ottoman period (nineteenth century CE). An industrial compound that included a potter’s kiln, installations and storage pits was in the region during the Late Roman and Byzantine periods. The compound was used for dwelling in the Ottoman period. No habitation levels were found from any of the periods, but the ceramic assemblage attests to the settlement continuity at the site.