Winepress 103 (Figs. 3, 4) was hewn in bedrock surface on the upper part of the slope. The treading floor (L103; 3.2 × 3.4 m, max. depth 0.3 m) was linked to a rectangular collecting vat (L123; 1.3 × 2.4 m, depth 1.4 m, including sump) by way of two rock-hewn tunnels (diam. c. 0.1 m). a settling cavity was hewn at the bottom of the collecting vat (Fig. 5) and in its upper rectangular part (0.6 × 1.0 m, depth 0.15 m) was a hewn circular sump (diam. 0.3 m). An underground cavern (L126; not excavated; Fig. 6) was apparently damaged when the collecting vat was hewn. The winepress was found filled with alluvium and devoid of any finds.
Winepress 113 (Figs. 7, 8) was on a bedrock surface along the slope of the hill; it was partly hewn and partly built. Since bedrock surface sloped to the south, the southwestern and southeastern sides of the treading floor (L113; c. 2.6 × 2.8 m, max. depth of rock-cutting 0.5 m) were raised by means of a built wall (W124; max. height 1 m). Wall 124 consisted of large stones (max. length 0.7 m) and had traces of white plaster (thickness 0.5 cm; Fig. 9) on the side facing the surface. A filtration pit and a collecting vat, hewn north of the treading floor, were connected to it. A hewn groove (length 0.3 m, width 0.1 m, depth 3 cm) led from the treading floor to the filtration pit (L121; c. 0.5 × 0.8 m; Fig. 10). A small round sump (diam. 0.2 m) was hewn at the bottom of the pit, in the southern corner below the opening of the groove. Sections of a thick white plaster layer, in which potsherds were embedded, survived on the lower part of the filtration pit’s side (Fig. 11).
The collecting vat (L122; c. 0.95 × 1.30 m, depth 1.5 m; Fig. 12), which was an irregular rectangle, was connected to the filtration pit by way of a hewn groove (width 0.1 m, depth 0.2 m). A hewn channel that became a tunnel (width 0.1 m, depth 0.3 m) led to the vat from the treading floor. Sections of thick white plaster in which potsherds were embedded, forming a sort of pavement, had survived along the bottom of the collecting vat (Fig. 13).
The winepress was discovered filled with alluvium, mixed with worn potsherds that could not be dated. Most of the potsherds embedded in the plaster remains were ribbed body fragments, which are characteristic of the Byzantine period.
Winepress 114 (Figs. 14, 15) was hewn in a bedrock surface on the slope. The treading floor (L114; max. dimensions: 2.8 × 2.9 m, depth 0.1 m) had an almost square shape. A narrow channel (width 8 cm, depth 0.1 m) led from the treading floor to a rectangular collecting vat (L125; c. 1.3 × 2.1 m, depth c. 0.7 m). Several large stones (max. length 0.7 m) that were found around the winepress may have survived from the stone enclosure that surrounded the installation. The winepress was discovered full of alluvium that was devoid of any artifacts.
Cave 104 (Fig. 16) was used as a dwelling, probably until 1948. A stone wall (W3; width c. 0.6 m), in which remains of a stone-built lintel and doorjamb are visible, blocked the original opening of the cave that faced the southwest; at the time of the excavation, the cave was entered via an opening in the ceiling that had collapsed due to erosion. The cave was a natural irregular-shaped cavern (length 10 m, width 8 m) and the signs of stone dressing visible on its walls indicate it was enlarged. Two walls (W1, W2), each built of a single row of stones (max. length 0.4 m) and preserved a single course high, were discovered in the cave. The walls were apparently used as partitions.
Burial Cave 105 (Fig. 17) was hewn on the slope and had partially collapsed. Only the rock-cut access corridor (length c. 2 m, width 1 m, depth 0.5 m), which led to the entrance of the cave, was cleaned. Signs of stone dressing were visible along the sides of the corridor, which was filled with alluvium that was devoid of any finds.
The structure (Fig. 18), built on the hilltop, was almost completely destroyed when its stones were reused in building an enclosure wall for a cultivation plot (Fig. 19). Only the western corner had remained of the building, which was oriented southwest-northeast. The rooms were arranged along the outer walls and apparently surrounded a central courtyard. The rooms along the outer western wall (W117; preserved length 11.8 m) and southern wall (W115; preserved length 7.3 m), were delimited by an interior wall that apparently extended the length of the building (W119; preserved length 5.5 m) and several partition walls (width c. 0.7 m, preserved height 0.1–0.7 m), which were mostly built of two rows of stones. Parts of two rooms (L110—width 2.7 m; L112—width 1.5 m) were exposed along W117; assuming that they continued east as far as the missing part of W119, they were probably c. 3.5 m long. It seems that they opened onto a central courtyard that extended east of W119 (L111). Two rooms (L108—3.5 × 4.5 m; L107—min. length 3.2, width 2.2 m) were exposed along W115. The wall that delimited Room 107 (W116) had apparently faced the central courtyard. Due to the building’s poor state of preservation, no floors had survived and the bedrock in each of the rooms was exposed, without any artifacts; the floor in the courtyard could not be found either.
A diverse assemblage of pottery vessels dating to the Byzantine, Umayyad and the beginning of the Abbasid periods (sixth–eighth centuries CE) was found next to the outer southern side of
W115 (L109), including bowls (Fig. 20:1), kraters (Fig. 20:2), cooking pots (Fig. 20:3, 4), jars (Fig. 20:5, 6), one of which (Fig. 20:5) was a bag-shaped store jar, prevalent throughout the Byzantine period (fifth–seventh centuries CE), jugs (Fig. 20:7–9), including a fragment of a Mafjar jug (No. 9; first half of the eighth century CE) and lamps (Fig. 20:10, 11). The vessels are characteristic of the settlements and farmhouses of the northern Negev in these periods (P. Figueras [ed.] 2004. Horvat Kurkar 'Illit: A Byzantine Church in the Northern Negev [Be`er Sheva‘ 16]. Beer Sheva; ‘Atiqot 47:1*–14* [Hebrew]). Since the assemblage is homogenous, the vessels may have originated in the building and were discarded behind W115 when the structure was dismantled. Based on these finds and the location of the building at the top of a hill, along whose slopes were cultivation plots and agricultural installations that are characteristic of the Late Byzantine and the Umayyad periods, it can be determined that the building was a farmhouse, which existed in these periods, as well as in the Abbasid period.