The following known archaeological sites are located in the Nahal Hilazon basin:
1. Khirbat Marjum. On a hill east of Sakhnin, a multi-period settlement that ranges in date from the Iron Age, through the Persian, Byzantine and Mamluk periods.
2. Nahal Eshbal (Abu Jasala). A small settlement that includes remains from the Iron Age and the Persian period.
3. Khirbat Fakhir. On a mountaintop—architectural remains, an estate and a well from the Byzantine period.
4. Be’er Rahaz (Bir el khashab). In the stream channel (2 on the survey map(, a well with a modern pool.
5. Nahal Hilazon. Farming terraces, a cistern, cave and rock-cuttings from the Roman and Byzantine periods.
6. Hilazon 'Illit Cave. Flint tools dating from the Epi-Palaeolithic period to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period were found in the fill of the destroyed terraces located in front of the cave.
7. Hilazon Tachtit Cave. A cave from the Late Natufian culture that served as a regional cemetery in this period (3 on the survey map).
8. Sha‘ab village. A multi-period site from the Roman period to the modern era.
9. Bir Hannani. A saqiye well located just north of Sha‘ab village, built of ashlars that reflect a variety of construction methods from different periods. The first settlement is probably dated to the Roman period and it continued until the modern era.
10. Horbat Ya‘anin. Above a hill, a site with walls, cisterns and tombs of a multi-period settlement, dating from the Chalcolithic to the Ottoman periods (6 on the survey map).
11. Nahal Hilazon. A flint scattering from an unidentified period.
12. Trigonometric Point 833C. Settlement remains from the Hellenistic and Mamluk periods and a flint and potsherd scattering from the Middle Bronze Age.
13. Ard el-Samra. An important multi-period settlement with remains dating from the Epi-Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, and the proto-historic periods from the Early Bronze to the Intermediate Bronze Ages (HA-ESI 122, HA-ESI 123).
14. Fish ponds north of Kefar Masaryk; remains of a small settlement from the Ottoman period.
Other sites connected to water and agriculture were discovered along the course of the stream and in its immediate surroundings (see Fig. 1).
1. Deir Hanna pool (map ref. 234173–311/752754–854). An artificial pool of an irregular shape (c. 100×200 m, depth c. 4 m) in the heart of the valley, in the upstream section, north of Deir Hanna.
2. Terrace wall (map ref. 225977–7065/755615–56). A wall (1.2×9.8 m, height c. 1 m) lining the northern bank of the stream, c. 200 m from the terrace wall, is built of boulders and stones.
3. Terrace wall (map ref. 225848–923/755624–82; 1.2×68.0 m, height c. 1 m) oriented east–west, several meters north of the stream; it is built of large boulders and different size fieldstones (Fig. 2). The wall is parallel to the flow of the stream and was apparently used to line the northern bank of the stream and divert the flow slightly to the south.
4. Glass furnace (map ref. 223386/755352; Fig. 3).Large ashlars (the largest 0.5×0.6 m, thickness 0.4 m) with gray soil and ash fill in-between. Several potsherds dating to the Byzantine period (fifth–sixth centuries CE) and one glazed sherd from the Crusader period (twelfth century CE) were collected. A chunk of industrial glass, ash and burnt material indicate that a glass furnace once stood here.
5. Ancient olive trees (map ref. 222316–3151/755388–631; Fig. 4). Dozens of ancient olive trees were planted inside the olive groves in the Sha‘ab Valley, in the lower middle section of the stream.Most of the trees have big hollow trunks, several of them with large circumference (5.5–6.5 m). Some of the trees were located in proper rows, at set intervals of c. 11 m, evidence that they had been planted in planned plots in the past.
6. Ya‘anin Well (map ref. 220810–22/755647–55; Fig. 5), north of Horbat Ya‘anin, a terraced, two level rectangular building, mostly destroyed. The lower level served as a base (8.6×11.6 m, height c. 0.3 m), built of one course of medium and large ashlars (the largest 0.3×0.7 m, thickness c. 0.25 m). The upper level (6.4×10.5 m) is divided into two wings: in the east—a rectangular room (3.3×4.0 m) with a round opening of a well in its center (diam. c. 1 m) and in the west—a rectangular pool (4.3×5.0 m) plastered on the inside, including the walls, with a thick layer (5 cm) of hydraulic plaster that consisted of crushed chalk mixed with grog and ash. A lining of potsherds, possibly from the Crusader period was observed beneath the plaster.
The ancient sites in the Nahal Hilazon basin represent all periods of ancient settlement in the country, from the Epi-Palaeolithic to the Ottoman periods. The finds along the stream are mostly related to the water flowing in it. The ancient agriculture consisted of planned olive groves, very few of which have been found in the country.