Concentrations of Potsherds. The sherd scatterings in the survey area were meager, except for two larger concentrations (2, 33) where fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Roman–Byzantine periods were found.
Architectural Remains. Most of the building remains were found along the eastern fringes of Horbat Kos. Seven remains of buildings, some of them rectangular (5, 7, 15, 19, 33) and some circular (4, 13), were documented. Among the rectangular building remains were two structures (5, 7; 3.0×4.5 m max. preserved height 1.5 m) built of medium-sized roughly hewn stones. Next to Building 7 was a massive wall built of dressed stones, several of which had drafted margins; numerous pottery fragments were found around it. A building (15; 5×5 m, preserved height 3 m; Figs. 3, 4), whose opening faced northwest, was built of large dressed stones. It had a barrel vault that was preserved in its entirety and plastered on the inside. Remains of a structure (2.5×3.0 m) built of large roughly hewn stones were surveyed near Site 19; it was preserved a single course high. Remains of rooms were documented and numerous fragments of pottery vessels (33) were found in the western part of the area.
The ruins of two round buildings were surveyed east of Horbat Kos. The first (4; diam. 3 m, preserved height 1.5 m) had a straight side along its eastern part and was built of small and medium-sized fieldstones. The southern half of the second building was preserved (13; diam. 2 m) and it was built of roughly hewn, medium-sized stones; numerous fragments of pottery vessels were noted in its vicinity.
Walls. Three walls (34, 39, 42) were discerned. Wall 34 was built of large fieldstones and preserved a single course high; a course of small fieldstones adjoined it from the north. Wall 39 was embedded in the soil and built of one row of large, roughly hewn stones. Wall 42 was a fence or field wall (max. preserved height 1.5 m), and several walls adjoined it from the west. It is quite possible some of the walls were farming terraces.
Watchman’s Huts. Four watchman’s huts were surveyed east of Horbat Kos; two were rectangular (3, 11; Fig. 5) and two circular (9, 10). The rectangular watchman’s huts had similar dimensions (c. 3×5 m, max. preserved height 2 m) and were built of medium-sized fieldstones and roughly hewn stones. The circular huts had also similar dimensions (diam. 4 m, max. preserved height 2 m) and although different in shape—one was circular (9; Fig. 6) and the other (10) was curved on just one side—both were built of medium and large fieldstones.
Limekiln. A round limekiln (6; diam. 6 m, max. preserved height 2 m) built of small and medium fieldstones.
Burial Cave. A rock-hewn burial cave (8; Fig. 7) with a rectangular opening (width 0.6 m) was found filled almost to its top with alluvium and debris.
Cave. A rock-hewn bell-shaped cave (36; diam. c. 3 m, height 1.5 m; Fig. 8) that had an opening facing southwest was documented. A niche (1.0×1.0×1.3 m) was recessed in the northwestern side of the cave.
Cistern. A rock-cut cistern (14; Fig. 9) that had a rectangular opening (0.8×1.0 m) and was presumably c. 5 m deep, was documented.
Rock-cut Installations. Two rock-cut installations were documented. The first was a round pit (16; diam. 1 m), blocked with soil fill and large stones. The second installation was a large cupmark or basin (19; diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.5 m; Fig. 10) hewn in a boulder whose surface was made smooth; traces of rock-cuttings and architectural remains were observed in its vicinity.
Roads. What might be the remains of five roads (18, 20–22, 26) were surveyed in the east. Each one was in a different state of preservation; however, all were built of parallel walls that survived a single course high and had earth and small fieldstones between them. None of the roads were wider than 2 m and all were oriented north–south.
Stone Clearance Heaps. Four round or elliptical stone clearance heaps (1, 12, 24, 37) of different sizes (4×5 m; diam. 3 m; preserved height 1.5 m), formed of small and medium fieldstones, were surveyed. Farming terraces were located near two of the heaps (24, 27). Numerous fragments of pottery vessels were found among the stones in Heap 37.
Field Walls and Farming Terraces. Farming terraces (2, 17, 23, 25, 27–32, 35, 38, 41) were the most prominent landscape component in the region. Their state of preservation and size varied (max. length c. 100 m, width c. 1 m, max. preserved height 1.5 m). Most were built of medium and large fieldstones and some were roughly hewn stones. Dressed building stones were incorporated in the construction of Terrace 23.
Based on the rural nature of the surveyed area, it seems that it constituted part of Jerusalem’s agricultural hinterland, at least during some of the ancient periods.