The foundations of two parallel walls (W107, W109; Fig. 4) with a floor bedding between them (L108) were unearthed. They probably belong to a room or a long, north–south corridor (6.2 m exposed length, 3 m wide). The foundations of the two walls were built of kurkar stones bonded together with reddish brown mortar. The floor bedding was composed of mortar mixed with pink zifzif (coarse sand). A pier (W113; Fig. 5) abutted the outer face of the eastern wall. The pier was built of kurkar stones, bonded together with a hamra-based, reddish brown mortar and coated with gray plaster (Fig. 6). A floor bedding made of crushed kurkar (L122) abutted the pier on the east. A wall (W106), similarly built of kurkar stones bonded with reddish brown mortar, was unearthed 0.6 m east of the pier, above Bedding 122. A floor made of gray plaster (L110) and resting c. 0.2 m higher than Bedding 122 abutted W106 to the south, indicating that the floor was built in a later construction phase. Floor 110 lay to the north of an installation (W118; Fig. 7). Two of the installation’s walls were preserved (W105, W116). Wall 105 was built of well-dressed kurkar stones; the north face of W116 was built of debesh, and its south face was built of well-dressed kurkar stones. He installation contained a brown soil fill (L117) overlaying a layer of gray soil; its use remains unclear.
The upper part of the brown soil fill in Installation 118 yielded a cooking pot (Fig. 8) stamped with a Greek(?) mark, which probably dates from the Ottoman period. The lower layer of gray soil in Installation 118 contained iron tools (Fig. 9), fragments of Marseilles roof tiles (Fig. 10:7) and potsherds dating from the Ottoman period (not drawn). The excavation also retrieved fragments of Gaza Ware from the late Ottoman period, including a bowl (Fig. 10:1), casseroles (Fig. 10:2, 3), a jar (Fig. 10:4), a jug (Fig. 10:5) and the body fragment of a jar or a jug (Fig. 10:6), broken Marseilles roof tiles (Figs. 10:8, 9; 11) and three glass vessels dated to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries CE (below, Ouahnouna; Fig. 12).
The Glass Vessels
Three glass vessels were found during this salvage excavation (Fig. 12). They are dated to the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century CE; similarly dated finds are common in excavations at Jaffa. The three vessels comprise a modest repertoire representing an aspect of the daily life in Palestine. Although far from being luxury or value items, these items have some importance because they come from a clear archaeological context.
Vessel 1 is a drinking glass. It is made of very thick, colorless glass with molded ribs on its body. At the bottom of the glass was a blue deposit, which was sent to be analyzed.
Vessel 2 is a complete mustard jar made of colorless glass; it bears the inscription “MOUTARDE FRANCAISE M. STEFANESCU”. A similar small jar was found in the excavation at the Postal Compound in Jaffa (Rauchberger 2015
), but that jar bears a different name (not published). This form of mustard jar was widespread during the second half of the nineteenth century CE, but the jars bore various producer names; in the case of our jar, the name is Romanian.
Vessel 3 is a complete, green, wide-mouth medicine bottle, rectangular in section. On the four sides of its body appears the same molded inscription—“KEPLER”, the name of the company—and the base bears the molded inscription “WELLCOME CHEMICAL WORKS R.497461”. Kepler Wellcome Chemical Works was founded in 1896 and made various cod-liver preparations (Tansey 2002
). Bottles of this type are usually of amber color.