Two areas (A, B; Fig. 1) were opened. The work focused on Area A, where four squares were excavated along the length of the aqueduct. A short segment that had been damaged by earthmoving work was documented in Area B.
Area A. The exposed aqueduct was partly built and partly hewn in the bedrock (Fig. 2). It was completely covered by a local dirt road; the aqueduct served to retain the road along the slope. The elevation of this aqueduct segment was 741.8 m asl.
The western part of the aqueduct in this area was hewn in the limestone bedrock (Fig. 3). Only its last phase was exposed in the excavation. It consisted of a terracotta pipe (diam. 23 cm) encased in concrete and set in the ancient plastered flow channel. The pipe is dated to the Early Ottoman period (sixteenth century CE). No holes were discerned along the top of the pipe, although this is a common phenomenon elsewhere along the Lower Aqueduct.
The constructed, eastern part the aqueduct was poorly preserved (max. height 1 m, width 2.2 m; Fig. 4). Most of it was built of small- and medium-sized stones, and its outer surfaces were plastered. Only a few remnants, at the foot of the aqueduct, survived of the outer plaster; two phases could be discerned. At one point, the outer layer was similar to the outer plaster at the foot of the aqueduct near where it emerges from the Armon Ha-Naziv tunnel; and at a second point, a small, pale-white piece of the outer plaster coating was inlaid with stones, as noticed elsewhere along the aqueduct (Billig 1997: 91, Figs. 24a, 24b). The terracotta pipe did not survive in the two eastern excavation squares, and only a small portion of the ancient plastered walls of the flow channel (width 0.40–0.58 m) were discernible. A Mamluk fals (IAA 124540) of al-Ashraf Sha‘ban II (1363–1377 CE) was found in one of the later layers of plaster in the flow channel, evidence of one of the repair phases carried out in the aqueduct during the Mamluk period (Mazar 2002). No section was cut through the aqueduct; hence, it was impossible to expose its ancient phases. Several large stones that might have been used to cover the aqueduct were found at its base. Numerous fragments of the Ottoman terracotta pipe and several non-diagnostic pottery sherds were also discovered.
Area B. A short segment (length 4.2 m) of the aqueduct was cleaned; a backhoe damaged it during the installation of the new pipeline. This section, on the northern fringes of Shmuel Meyer Boulevard, the road that descends from Derekh Hevron to the Har Homa neirghborhood, was probably visible in the past, prior to being covered when the road was paved. The aqueduct in this section was damaged down to the bottom of the Ottoman terracotta pipe. The elevation at this point along the aqueduct was 741.74 m asl.
Several items were found on the surface near the aqueduct, including a fragment of a roof tile bearing a stamped impression of the Tenth Legion (Fig. 5) and two coins: a pruta of Alexander Jannaeus (80/79–76 BCE; IAA 124542) and a pruta of Herod (37–4 BCE; IAA 124541).
A short, poorly preserved segment of the Lower Aqueduct to Jerusalem was exposed in the excavation. The aqueduct was adapted for the rocky slope by means of a delicate balance of rock-cutting and construction, ensuring a level route for the conduit.