The excavation, located along a road on the northwestern slope of a hill, revealed four clusters of installations (F10, F20, F30, F40; Figs. 2, 3), which included a limekiln and agricultural installations. These remains could not be dated, but numerous similar remains have been recorded in the vicinity and are typical of this hilly region.
The Arab village of Barfiliya occupied the hill until 1948. This village was one of the largest ones in the area, ad may of its remains are still visible on the surface; a village at this site is mentioned in Crusader-period documents (Kedar 2014:34–35). Somewhat to the south of the excavation area and to its southwest are the remains of another ancient settlement, probably a farmhouse (Shavit 2014: Site 349), as well as cisterns, winepresses and rock-cuttings (Shavit 2014: Sites 356–358, 367, 368). An excavation along Road 20, west of Barfiliya, uncoved an agricultural expanse featuring remains of agricultural installations, caves, agricultural terraces and a burial cave (Kogan-Zehavi and Zelinger 2007). Not far from the excavation, to its north, are remains of ancient agricultural activity (Eshed 2018).
F10. A round limekiln (L100, L101; diam. c. 3.7 m, depth c. 2.8 m; Figs. 4, 5) was uncovered. Its lower part was hewn into a natural depression in the rock and lined with two rows of fieldstones (W105). The kiln was damaged on its northern side by mechanical equipment, apparently removing the ventilation tunnel that fanned the kiln’s flames. At the bottom of the kiln (L101) was a layer of black-gray ash—remains from the kiln’s operation. A circular installation (W107; Fig. 6) abutted the kiln on the west where it was set on the bedrock. It may have been associated with the kiln’s operation.
F20. A depression (L102; 2 × 4 m, depth c. 0.5 m; Figs. 7, 8) in the bedrock may have been a quarry for raw material for the kiln. However, while detachment marks of nari chunks were noted, they lacked the straight outlines typical of building-block quarries. Nevertheless, detachment of nari blocks for lime production is known throughout the agricultural region of early Modi‘in, especially in the area of Naḥal ‘Anava (Sasson 2010). A cupmark (L108; diam. 0.42 m, depth c. 0.3 m) was found near the depression.
F30. A field wall (W104; Figs. 9, 10) was discovered down the slope. It was built of medium-sized fieldstones set on bedrock.
F40. Another field wall (W106; Fig. 11) was discovered. It was built of medium-sized fieldstones and set on bedrock. It was possibly part of a long wall that stretched along the spur and served as a retaining wall for an agricultural terrace.