A square agricultural compound (L100; c. 41×44 m; Fig. 2) was situated on a flat hilltop. The northeastern wall (W151, length 41.7 m, width 0.6 m) was built of two rows of fieldstones (max. length 0.4 m), standing two courses high (max. height 0.2 m). The southeastern wall (W152; length 44.2 m) was partly built like W151 and partly marked by a row of stones (max. length 0.7 m). The southwestern wall (W153; length 40 m) was built of two rows of small stones, one course high. The northwestern side of the compound rested against a natural cliff (max. height 1 m). The surface level was horizontal and marked by modern plowing. To evaluate the nature of the compound, eleven trial squares were opened along its walls and two squares and a diagonal probe trench (L117; Fig. 3) were excavated in the center.
Three squares (L106, L107, L122; 2×2 m) were excavated along W151; in all three squares, natural soil mixed with some stones (max. depth 0.4 m) and underlying bedrock, were exposed.
Four squares (L120, L136, L137, L140; 1×3 m) were excavated along W152; natural soil (depth 0.13–0.40 m) and the underlying bedrock were exposed.
A square (L116; 4×7 m) was excavated in the southern corner of the compound, where Walls 152 and 153 met; natural soil (depth 0.2 m) and the underlying bedrock were exposed (Fig. 4).
Three trial trenches (L104, L105, L138, 1×3 m) were excavated along Wall 153 in which the natural soil (maximum depth 0.4 m), and underlying bedrock were exposed (Fig. 5).
In the center of the compound, two trenches (L108, L121; length 5 m, width 0.6 m) were dug with the aid of a backhoe and a third probe trench (L117), extending along the entire length of the compound from north to south, was excavated. Natural soil (thickness 0.2–0.4 m) and the underlying bedrock were exposed in each of the trenches.
Apart from several body sherds of jars from the Byzantine period, scarce and worn potsherds that cannot be dated were found on the surface.
Several lines of shallow walls were found on the slope southeast of the compound (see Fig. 1), which might be part of a road or a farming terrace (W154; c. 30 m), built of a single row of stones (length 0.3 m). A terrace (width c. 3 m) was located along its northwestern side. Two probes (L123, L125; each 2×2 m), in which bedrock was exposed, were excavated.
Another wall (W147) was perpendicular to the slope and in line with W153; however, there was no connection between them. The wall (length c. 6 m, width c. 0.3 m) was built of a single row of stones (length 0.4 m) and stood a single course high. A trial square (L141; 1×1 m, depth c. 0.08 m) was excavated along the wall’s northern side and bedrock was revealed beneath it.
Limekilns. A funnel-shaped limekiln (L101; upper diam. c. 5 m, lower diam. 2.6 m, depth c. 4.2 m; Figs. 6, 7) was found filled almost to its top with different size stone collapse.
The upper part of the kiln (W179; depth c. 1 m) consisted of corbelled wall sections (length 1–2 m), probably intended to support the sides and prevent their collapse into the kiln. A curved wall (W165, diam. 2.6 m) was found at a depth of c. 1 m. The side of the kiln along the bottom part of the wall was built of stones (length c. 0.3 m). About 2 m below the top of the wall and the stone collapse was a burnt layer mixed with lime (L113; depth c. 1.2 m), overlaying the bedrock.
A funnel-shaped limekiln (L102; upper diam. 4.8 m, lower diam. 2.2 m, depth 3.7 m; Figs. 8–10). Its upper part was found filled with different size stone collapse and surrounded by an earthen rampart (W166; width c. 1.5 m, height 1.5 m), lined with stones on either side. Below it was the firebox (L112; depth 1.8 m) lined with stones (W167; max. length 0.3 m) and filled with partially burnt stones, ash and lime. Bedrock was exposed underneath the burnt layer in a probe excavated below the floor of the kiln (L114; depth c. 15 cm). Pieces of disintegrated canvas and potsherds from the British Mandate era were discovered in the kiln collapse.
A funnel-shaped limekiln with corbelled sides (L103, upper diam. 4.4 m, lower diam. 1.9 m; Figs. 8, 9, 11). The upper part of the installation was surrounded by an earthen rampart mixed with stones (W168; height c. 0.3 m). While removing the stone collapse, a wall (W169; height 1.5 m) that was the side of the kiln’s firebox (L115; width 2.6 m) was exposed. The wall was built on top of a lower wall (W170; height 0.35 m) that reduced the diameter of the kiln to 2 m. The inside of the kiln was found filled with burnt stones, chunks of lime and ash. A probe that was excavated in the floor of the kiln (L158; depth c. 15 cm) revealed a burnt layer that overlaid the bedrock.
Winepress. A rock-hewn winepress was exposed; it consisted of a treading floor (L146; 1.9×2.4 m, depth 0.1–0.4 m; Figs. 12, 13) and a collecting vat (0.8×1.1 m, depth 0.9 m), connected by a hewn channel (width c. 5 cm). The winepress was found filled with alluvium. East of the winepress (L157) were traces of ancient rock-cuttings that destroyed the bedrock surface and the eastern side of the winepress. Body sherds of jars dating to the Byzantine period were found around the winepress.
Two walls (W129, W155) built of one or two rows of stones (max. length 0.5 m, width 0.7 m) that delimited a plot of land (L131; c. 40×45 m, max. height 0.5 m; Fig. 14). An excavation in the eastern corner revealed that the walls were constructed on top of the bedrock.
Stone heap arranged in a semicircle (L126; diam. c. 4 m, max. length 0.4 m, height c. 0.7 m; Figs. 15, 16). Bedrock was exposed in a probe conducted in the western side of the heap (c. 0.3 m below the surface).
Semicircular Stone Wall (W163; diam. c. 4.5 m, max. length 0.4 m, height c. 0.8 m; Figs. 17, 18). An excavation probe was conducted in the southern side of the wall (L128) and natural soil (depth c. 0.4 m) was found overlying the bedrock.
Square Building (L127; Figs. 19, 20). Remains consisting of a southeastern wall (W160; length 3.8 m), a northeastern wall (W159; length c. 2.5 m) and a southwestern wall (W161; length 1.1 m) were found. The northwestern part of the building was washed away. Its walls were built of two rows of small stones (width 0.6 m, max. height c. 1 m). Remains of plaster and mud were found on the walls. A white plaster floor (L127; thickness c. 5 cm) was exposed inside the building and several fired bricks manufactured by the FORTH factory, which were very common at the time of the British Mandate, were found. Bedrock was exposed in the eastern corner of the building (L130), c. 0.5 m below the floor.
Winepress. A rock-hewn winepress(L150; Figs. 19, 21), including remains of a treading floor (L150; c. 2.5×2.5×0.1 m depth) and a collecting vat (L162; 0.5×0.5 m) that was converted to a cistern (depth c. 3 m), was exposed. The winepress had been excavated in the past (HA-ESI 115:44*–45*).
The excavated remains are a collection of installations, some of which are modern, which have no connection to each other. Based on the worn potsherds, such as those from the Byzantine period in Compound 100 and Winepress 146, the remains presumably represent the remote agricultural fringes of Horbat Regev, which is located c. 400 m up the slope, west of Winepress 146. The same is probably true for Terrace Walls 147 and 154.
The three kilns were presumably used during the British Mandate era and were part of a complex of kilns that produced lime, which was exposed in the lower part of Nahal ‘Anava, beyond the limits of the excavation.
Building 127 was probably an administrative structure connected to the lime production complex. Installations 126 and 128 are not clear. These were probably stone concentrations awaiting transport for burning in the lime production process.
Compound 131 was an orchard where several olive and almond trees survived; these were surrounded by a stone fence and probably belonged to the abandoned Arab village of ‘Anava, c. 600 m to the west.