Seven walls and installations were excavated (Fig. 1).
Field Wall 1. The wall (W1; length c. 80 m, width c. 0.8 m; Fig. 2), which divided a cultivation plot in two, was built of fieldstones (length 0.4 m) preserved only one course high (c. 0.2 m above bedrock).
Terrace Wall 2. A retaining wall (W2; length 55 m, width c. 0.7 m; Fig. 3) constructed on the edge of a cultivation plot in order to prevent erosion, was built of one row of fieldstones (max. length 0.5 m). It was preserved to a height of one–two courses.
Terrace Wall 3. A retaining wall (W3; length 65 m, width c. 0.5 m; Figs. 4, 5) constructed on the edge of a cultivation plot in order to prevent erosion, was built of one row of stones (max. length 0.5 m) and was preserved to a height of two courses (c. 0.3 m above bedrock).
Pressing Installation 4. A rock-hewn installation (L4; Fig. 6) consisted of a round cupmark (diam. 0.35 m, depth 0.25 m) and a shallow rock-cutting (0.8 × 1.0 m, depth 2–3 cm), with a groove (depth c. 4 cm) connecting them.
Rock-Hewn Installation 5. This feature consisted of a rock-cutting (L5; 0.4 × 0.8 m, depth 0.2 m; Figs. 7, 8) at the bottom of which is a sump (diam. c. 0.1 m, depth c. 5 cm). It might have been used as a pressing installation for wine or other agricultural products.
A winepress and an oil press, located beyond the limits of the excavation, were documented. Although they were not excavated, they contribute to our understanding of the distribution of agricultural installations.
Winepress 6. A rock-hewn winepress consisting of a treading floor (3.3 × 4.4 m, depth 0.1 m; Figs. 9, 10) and a collecting vat (1.5 × 1.5 m, depth c. 0.9 m). In a later phase, the collecting vat was deepened and converted into a cistern (over 2 m deep).
Installation Crushing 7
. A rock-cut installation was found covered with alluvium (Fig. 11). A square perforation (0.2 × 0.2 m) in its center was used to secure a beam. While most scholars believe that installations of this type were used to crush olives, another theory suggests that they were used for crushing grain to make groats (Eitam 1992
The installations revealed in this excavation reflect the agricultural activity of the local inhabitants of Khirbat Ghuweina el-Fauqa, dating to the late Iron Age to the Byzantine period.