The current excavation (c. 73 sq m; Figs. 1, 2) partially exposed remains of a dwelling—a room and a courtyard—dating to the Late Hellenistic period (second–first centuries BCE). Two segments of wall foundations (W24, W25), represent the northwestern southwestern walls of a residential room. The foundations, hewn in the travertine as two bedrock masses that protrude above their surroundings, most probably carried mud-brick walls. The exposed segment of Foundation 24 was formed by two perpendicular rock-cuttings, a southeast one (length 4.5 m, height 0.20–0.35 m) and a southwest one (exposed length 1.25 m). Of Foundation 25 (max. dimensions: length 1.22 m, width 1.1 m, height 0.26 m) remains a bedrock mass hewn on three sides. Presumably, W25 was hewn on its eastern side as well, but the rock-cutting was not preserved; if so, it may have been a pillar. The floor of the room enclosed by the two walls was hewn bedrock in the western part of the room (L1; Fig. 3), to which a thin plaster floor (L2) was added in the east and southeast. The elevation of the natural bedrock dropped off at the seam between the two sections of floor. The room opened on its southwest to the courtyard; the entrance (width 1.75 m) had a rock-hewn threshold.
The courtyard floor was cut in the travertine rock (L20) that was roughly leveled in several places. A rock-hewn, bottle-shaped pit (L22, diameter 0.6 m, exposed depth 2.15 m; Fig. 4) was revealed slightly south of W24. The upper part of the pit was a shaft (depth 0.5 m), and below it were three bedrock projections that formed a triangular opening with curved sides. In the lower part of the shaft, above the bedrock projections, the pit was covered with a very large piece of travertine; the space between it and the sides of the shaft were filled with smaller stones. The main cavity in the pit was not excavated; however, it was empty in the section between the bedrock projections and a layer of collapsed stone-chip (depth 1. 5 m) found above its floor. In the upper part of the cavity, the diameter of the rock-cutting gradually increased, rendering its wall a shoulder-like profile. From that point down to the layer of collapsed stones, the diameter of the pit increased very gradually, until it became more or less uniform. The pit was evidently used as a silo for storing grain and for household purposes. The original cover that sealed the pit indicates the place might have been abandoned.
A channel (L21; exposed length 8 m, width 0.32–0.41 m, depth 0.10–0.28 m; Fig. 5) hewn in the bedrock floor of the room and the courtyard was exposed to the west and south of the pit. The channel began in the excavation’s northern balk, descended south and turned east. It was found without a cover and filled with travertine, pebbles and pottery sherds. The channel’s outlet was not found and its use is unclear. It may have conveyed spring water from the nearby river channel to room to its north. Another possibility is that it was used also to drain run-off from the courtyard, so as to prevent the silo from flooding. If so, the water presumably drained into an open area located east of the bedrock floor, in which the channel was hewn.
Pottery. A homogenous assemblage of Hellenistic pottery dating from the end of the second century to the mid first century BCE was found on the floors of the room and the courtyard. These vessels resemble those of Groups 2A and 2C found at Tel Anafa (Berlin 1997). These include bowls that are slipped both on the inside and outside, one with an inverted rim that is slipped in black (Fig. 6:1), and another which is open and slipped in red (Fig. 6:2); bowls that have an outwardly folded rim and a flat body (Figs. 6:3, 4); an imported cup, slipped red both inside and outside (Fig. 6:5) that dates from the late second century to the early first century BCE; Late Hellenistic casseroles (Fig. 6:6, 7); a variety of cooking pots (Fig. 6:8–15), among them a cooking pot with a long neck, curved rim and a handle drawn from the rim to the shoulder (Fig. 6:11), dating from c. 125 BCE; a cooking-pot lid (Fig. 6:16); jugs (Fig. 6:17, 18); a juglet (Fig. 6:19) and a spindle-shaped juglet (Fig. 6:20), dating from 125–80 BCE; as well as jars (Fig. 6:21–24) and amphorae (Fig. 6:25, 26). In addition, mold-made lamps fashioned from gray clay were found. They have a round body and nozzle, and are decorated with geometric patterns and slipped black on their upper half (Fig. 6:27–29). The lamps are similar to lamps that were dated to 200–50 BCE found at Tel Anafa and at Tel Dor (Guz-Zilberstein 1995).
The excavation revealed a Late Hellenistic single-stratum site, in which a dwelling comprising a room that opened onto a courtyard was unearthed. The room’s foundations were hewn in bedrock and served as a base for brick walls. Rock-hewn installations located in the courtyard were used for domestic purposes, such as a silo used for storing grain. The Hellenistic settlement at ‘En Ha-Naziv seems to have been based on agriculture, the nearby springs serving as their possible source of water. This is the first time that architectural remains from the Hellenistic period have been discovered at the site. The excavation finds have provided important knowledge about the Hellenistic settlement in the Bet Sheʽan Valley in general and ‘En Ha-Naziv in particular.