Stratum VI: Prehistoric Periods. Several dozen flint tools and flakes dating to the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods were collected. On the hilltop in Area C, bedrock outcrops were found which had concentrations of tabular flint and flint nodules and nearby quarrying marks.
Stratum V: Roman Period. A section of a colorful mosaic floor that was apparently from a corner of a villa was exposed in Area A. At least five colors were identified in the mosaic, which consisted of several panels containing guilloche and dentil decorations. The mosaic floor was part of a corner of a building (at least 3.5 × 5.0 m). The remains of a later stratum cut through the mosaic floor in the south. A rock-hewn burial cave, which was probably quarried in the Roman period and was used as a dwelling in the Ottoman period, was excavated in Area B.
Stratum IV: Byzantine Period. Three screw-type winepresses, arranged in a row from north to south, and an adjacent broad wall were exposed in Area A. All that was preserved of the northern winepress was a treading floor paved with a white mosaic and a collecting vat with steps. The foundation of a mosaic, the base of a press bed and a collecting vat survived in the southern winepress. Remains of another winepress, consisting of a collecting vat and treading floor, survived between the northern and southern presses. In Area B, two screw presses were exposed, perpendicular to each other and surrounded by an enclosure wall. Another installation preserving a collecting vat was noted in Area C. Pottery from the Byzantine period found in the installations, enclosure walls and agricultural terraces is indicative of the intensive agricultural activity that occurred at the site during this period.
Stratum III: Early Islamic Period. A kiln was built inside the collecting vat of the middle winepress in Area A. The kiln was devoid of any artifacts. Fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Abbasid period were collected from an ash spill found to the south of the kiln. Glass debris was discovered scattered throughout the excavation areas. It was impossible to determine the purpose of the kiln, which might have been used to produce either glassware or pottery vessels.
Stratum II: Crusader to Mamluk Periods. Fragments of glazed pottery vessels, found on top of stone clearance heaps and agricultural terraces in Areas A and C, are indicative of agricultural activity carried out at the site during the Crusader and Mamluk periods. A coin dating to the twelfth century CE was found between the stones of a broad wall (length c. 100 m) in Area C; therefore, the construction of the wall should probably be ascribed to this period.
Stratum I: Ottoman Period. The expansion of the burial cave in Area B and its conversion to a dwelling should be dated to this period. Artifacts dating to the past several hundred years were gathered from the floor of the cave.
The excavation yielded evidence of human activity—quarrying, flint knapping, agriculture and various types of work—in the proto-historic and historic periods at the site. The site and its location, next to Tel Yoqne‘am and Horbat Hanot Qiri, contribute to our understanding of man’s history in the region between the mountains and the valley.