Square 1. Remains of two parallel walls (W102, W108; Figs. 2, 3) were revealed. Wall 108 was founded on friable basalt bedrock that had eroded and was mixed with brown soil. It was built of nari, limestone and basalt fieldstones, on a north–south axis; only one course was preserved. Wall 102 was founded on a thick layer of alluvium (L107, L109, L110) above bedrock. It was built of large limestone fieldstones, with small river pebbles between them; again, only one course survived. The wall, destroyed in the middle of the square, continued north and south beyond its limits. The alluvium on which W102 was founded yielded many small lumps of travertine, pottery from the Roman period, including Early Roman sherds, and the Byzantine period, two coins from the fourth century CE (IAA Nos. 112117, 112118) and flint tools (Marder, below). It seems that the two walls were used to divert rainwater as well as to delineate cultivation plots that extended west of the streambed.
Square 2. A concentration of limestone blocks (W103; Figs. 4, 5) probably represent the remains of a wall used to delimit agricultural areas that extended west of the streambed. Friable basalt bedrock that had undergone erosion and was mixed with brown colored soil was exposed directly below the concentration of stones. The bedrock, which sloped steeply eastward, was part of the western bank of the stream. Pottery sherds from the Roman and Byzantine periods, two coins from the fourth–fifth centuries CE (IAA Nos. 112115, 112116) and flint tools (Marder, below) were discovered in the alluvium that covered the stone concentration (L101, L105). The ceramic finds included a cooking pot (Fig 6:1), an amphora (Fig. 6:2) and a jar with a ribbed neck and an everted, triangular rim (Fig. 6:3), all of which date to the first century BCE; kraters (Fig. 6:4–6) dating to the second century CE; and a cooking-pot lid (Fig. 6:7) from the Byzantine period.
Flint Items
Ofer Marder
Twenty-one abraded flint items covered with patination were discovered in secondary deposit. All of the items date to the Middle Paleolithic period (250,000–40,000 YBP). The assemblage includes four primary items, eight flakes, two blades, four flakes fashioned using the Levallois technique and three tools. The tools consist of a partially retouched Levallois point (Fig. 7:1), a side scraper knapped on a Levallois flake (Fig. 7:2) and a retouched Levallois blade (Fig. 7:3).