Area A (Fig. 2). Part of a structure that was probably a residential building was exposed in the two southern squares (Squares 4, 5; Fig. 3). A well-built wall foundation (W2), oriented north–south and built of combined ashlars and fieldstones, was uncovered. A single ashlar that apparently belonged to another east–west aligned wall (W4) was exposed 0.5 m from the northern end of W2. These walls were set on a foundation of small stones. A layer of small stones (L110) was discovered between the two walls. These probably constituted the bedding of a floor that was founded on a thick layer (c. 0.5 m) of different size fieldstones, which had been set on natural clay soil. It seems that the thick layer of fieldstones was meant to reinforce the foundations of the building and prevent their shifting. A wall (W1) abutted the middle of W2 from the south; the joint angle was not perpendicular. One side of W1 was built of large roughly hewn stones and the other side of fieldstones. Another wall (W3) abutted W1; built of small fieldstones, it was located mostly in the eastern balk of the excavation square. Walls 1 and 3 were poorly built and it seems that they were later additions to the structure. Natural clay soil (L106) was discovered north of the corner formed by Walls 1 and 2. It was overlain with a few fragments of pottery vessels, mostly cooking pots (Fig. 4:2) and jars (Fig. 4:4) from the Late Byzantine period. A floor foundation of small stones (L107) was exposed in the space between Walls 1, 2 and 3. On top of this foundation were several fragments of pottery vessels dating to the end of the Byzantine period, including a jar (Fig. 4:5).
A level of small stones was discovered in the three northern squares (1–3; L105); it was overlain with potsherds from the Byzantine period, including bowls (Fig. 4:1) and jars (Fig. 4:3, 6). It seems that Level 105 was the foundation of a floor that abutted the building to its south and was possibly a courtyard in front of it.
A probe excavated in the northern part of the area, below the elevation of the building’s foundations, revealed clay soil in which potsherds were mixed, including jars (Fig. 4:7, 8) that dated to the Byzantine period.
Area B (Fig. 5). A wall (W20) whose bottom part was well-built of ashlars and its upper part – of fieldstones, was exposed. Remains of a floor bedding (L205), consisting of small fieldstones, were uncovered south W20. The excavation could not be completed in the area due to the high level of the aquifer. Based on the construction of the bottom part of W20, it seems that this wall was part of a large dwelling structure.
Winepress (Fig. 6). Part of a winepress’ treading floor (L151; c. 5 × 5 m) was exposed; a square pit in its center was used to secure the base of the press screw. The floor was paved with tesserae, set in gray mortar. It was enclosed by low walls (W5, W6) that were built of medium-sized fieldstones and gray mortar. Flat square fieldstones were incorporated in the treading floor where the mosaic was not preserved; therefore, it seems that the floor was damaged and repaired in antiquity. A few fragments of pottery vessels that dated to the Late Byzantine period were discovered in the excavation of the treading floor.
Limekiln (Fig. 7). Part of a limekiln (diam. 3 m, depth 1.7 m) was exposed to the north of Area A. It was dug into the ground and lined with two courses of fieldstones. The western part of the kiln was damaged when a trench was dug for the installation of the gas pipeline. Numerous burnt stones with white lime on their bottom were discovered inside the kiln. Fragments of pottery vessels from the Byzantine period were discovered around the kiln.
Lime Pit (Fig. 8). A rectilinear lime pit with rounded corners was exposed (L153; length of sides 2.0 m, 2.3 m, 2.5 m, 2.5 m; excavated depth 1.3 m); the excavation did not reach its bottom. The edges of the pit were indistinct. Several layers of lime were discerned inside it. Fragments of pottery vessels from the Late Ottoman period were discovered in the soil that had accumulated in and around the pit. It seems that the pit was used by the inhabitants of the village, situated on the site and along its fringes. This village was established by the Turks to assist in the construction of the railroad and was occupied by Egyptian laborers. The village was abandoned at the beginning of the War of Independence.
Excavations conducted at the site in recent years indicate that a village dating to the Byzantine period was situated in the vicinity of the site; it was abandoned during the Umayyad period. So far, remains of this settlement have been discovered west and south of the ruin. The settlement remains in the current excavation were exposed for the first time east of the ruin, indicating that the inhabited area was more extensive than previously thought.