Five main strata (1–5) were identified in the excavation. Stratum 1, the latest layer, included brown alluvium (thickness c. 1 m) containing mixed finds, including modern material. Stratum 2 was a layer of black compacted clay (thickness c. 0.5 m) consisting of remains ascribed to the Natufian culture. Stratum 3 was a layer of coarse-grained sand (thickness 0.1–0.4 m), rich in flint items and animal bones from the Kebaran culture. Stratum 4 was a sterile layer of brown clay (thickness 0.2 m) rich in small calcium carbonate crystals. Stratum 5, the earliest layer, included brown clay (thickness c. 0.8 m) containing erosion-abraded stones of flint and limestone.
Areas D and G (Fig. 2)
The Kebaran Culture. Activity areas associated with flint knapping and butchering of animals were identified in Area G (Figs. 3, 4). Where knapping took place, large amounts of flint cores, core debris, pounders and anvils—hard pieces of limestone placed on their broad side—were discovered. The butchering areas exhibited a high concentration of animal bones and flint tools that were used to cut and work the skins, such as backed-knives and end-scrapers. Limestone slabs, probably used as cutting boards or for extracting bone marrow, were also found in the butchering areas. In Area D, stone installations of various sizes and shapes were dug into the layer rich in flint and animal bones. This early settlement phase is characterized by basalt pounding and grinding tools (Fig. 5), which are indicative of processing food from plants. The flint assemblage from this phase is characteristic of the Kebaran culture and typified by non-geometric microliths, among them arched-backed bladelets, truncated backed bladelets (Kebara points) and micro points (Fig. 6). This dating is corroborated by two 14C analyses that point to a date c. 23,000 YBP.
The Natufian Culture. The layer of black clay contained a lens of light brown sandy earth rich in small lumps of charcoal. Also found were a section of a wall built of small and medium-sized limestone that had a horn of a wild bull incorporated in it, and an installation constructed of large flat pieces of limestone, several of them placed vertically with a horn of a wild bull inserted between them (Fig. 7). Lunates (Fig. 8), basalt items, including decorated pounding tools (Figs. 9, 10) and other decorated items were discovered. Three 14C analyses dated the stratum to c. 14,000 YBP, the beginning of the Natufian culture.
Areas E and F (Fig. 11)
The Kebaran Culture. Stone installations exhibiting two construction phases were unearthed in Area E. In the early phase, the installations were built on a bedding of brown clay rich in small calcium carbonate crystals. In the later phase, the installations were dug into a level of coarse-grain sand, rich in flint items and bone fragments. The flint assemblage includes non-geometric microliths and bladelet cores. Among the other finds discovered were limestone and basalt pounding tools, knapped limestone tools (Fig. 12) and artistic items. Two strata rich in flint items and animal bones were exposed in a probe in Area F (Fig. 13); one seems to be the continuation of the Kebaran-culture stratum in Area E.
The Natufian Culture. A lens of clay rich in calcium carbonate crystals and surrounded by several large stones was uncovered in Area F; these may be the remains of a hut (Fig. 14). The lens was covered with coarse-grain sand containing numerous flint items and animal bones.
The Epipalaeolithic-period site uncovered in the excavation comprised two settlement strata ascribed to the Kebaran and Natufian cultures. Spatial organization, the utilization of food from a variety of sources and the use of diverse technologies to exploit several types of raw material were discerned at the site. Artistic artifacts were also discovered, indicating that social complexity already existed in the early phase of the period, c. 10,000 years before the appearance of permanent settlements and the transition to agriculture in the Levant.