In March 2015, a trial excavation was conducted at the Chalcolithic site Nahal Yattir 2 (Permit No. A-7234; map ref. 190671-798/572329-409; Fig. 1), prior to construction of Section 3 of Highway 6. The excavation, undertaken on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority and financed by the Cross-Israel Highway Company, was directed by D. Yegorov (field photography), with the assistance of Y. Al-‘Amor (administration), S. Gal (GPS), and M. Kunin, A. Hajian and M. Kahan (surveying and drafting).
Two areas (A, B) were opened.
Area A (Figs. 2, 3) is on a moderate hillside at the southern foot of which is a tributary of Nahal Yattir. Four excavation squares (4 × 4 m) subdivided into secondary squares (2 × 2 m) were opened in an area of one dunam. The squares were excavated in 10 cm increments to a maximum depth of 33 cm, and the contents removed from the squares were completely sifted. A rich assemblage of flint tools that included dozens of sickle blades, cores and knapping debitage was exposed in a layer of loess in the northern part of the area (Figs. 4, 5). In addition, fragments of pottery vessels were found, only a few of which could be identified. The finds date to the Chalcolithic period.
In Area B, c. 200 m north of Area A, remains of a dam were excavated (L901, L902; Figs. 6, 7). The dam (W90), aligned northwest–southeast, was built of four courses of medium-sized wadi stones coated with modern concrete. The nature of the construction and lack of diagnostic finds made it possible to date the dam to modern times, probably to the period of the British Mandate.
Nahal Yattir 2, which dates to the Chalcolithic period, was probably a seasonal site that was used primarily for the production of flint tools. This is also evidenced by the absence of architectural remains and underground complexes. Its location between two wadi beds, along fertile fields and the predominance of sickle blades that were knapped from indigenous raw material, allude to agricultural activity.
Govrin Y. 1991a. Map of Nahal Yattir (139)
(Archaeological Survey of Israel). Jerusalem.
Govrin Y. 1991b. The Nahal Yatir Site – Moladah in the Inheritance of the Tribe of Simeon? ‘Atiqot 20:13*–24* (Hebrew).