Remains of a building (L108; 1.25 × 3.40 m; Fig. 5) preserved to a height of three courses (1.35 m) were exposed. The building adjoined the Old City wall (W1). A large threshold stone (0.32 × 0.80 × 1.55 m) was incorporated into the eastern part of the building, and it appears that the wall of the structure continued south of the threshold, beyond the limits of the excavation. The structure was built of medium-size, coarsely dressed fieldstones, and of dressed stones in secondary use. These included a voussoir in the southwestern corner, which bears diagonal chiseling marks characteristic of the Crusader period. The stones were bonded with light gray mortar, which was haphazardly smeared between them and on the adjacent stones of the city wall. The floor of the building was not discovered. An accumulation of dark-brown soil and fieldstones (L105, L107), which yielded pottery from the Late Ottoman period and debris from the first half of the twentieth century, was exposed beneath the remains of the building. These finds date the structure to the Late Ottoman period at the earliest.
The western part of Building 108 was constructed above a dark-brown tamped earth floor (L103), which abutted the city wall. This floor was not excavated. An accumulation of dark-brown earth and small and medium fieldstones (L100) revealed above the floor contained modern refuse. A water channel (L102; width 0.2 m, depth 0.30–0.38 m; Fig. 6), oriented east–west, was installed in the southern part of the floor, and extended beneath the building. The channel was square in cross-section, lined with small stones, and coated with a single layer of yellowish light-gray plaster (thickness 1–2 cm). The channel had been covered with stone slabs, and one of them was preserved in the western balk of the excavation area. The channel was put out of use by a collapse of medium and large stones (L114). Some of the collapsed stones were not worked, and some were roughly hewn. Pottery dating to the Late Ottoman period and modern refuse were retrieved from between the collapsed stones. The collapse could not be cleared because of the size of the stones.
A floor made of crushed chalk (L106; thickness 4–7 cm) was discovered in the southwestern part of the excavation square. It was lower than the threshold stone of Building 108, but at the same level as Floor 103. Floors 103 and 106 may have been part of a single floor, which was destroyed by a pit. The pit was filled with collapsed stones (L114). Another crushed-chalk floor (L115; thickness 3–5 cm), which was founded on large stone slabs and sloped to the east, was exposed beneath Floor 106. Floors 106 and 115 merged in the southwestern corner of the square (see Fig. 3: Section 3–3, Fig. 7). Floor 106 may have been a repair of Floor 115 which had subsided. The floors may date to the twentieth century CE. A soil accumulation (L110) under Floor 115 contained pottery from the Ottoman period, including a Hand-Made Geometrically Painted (HMGP) bowl which dates to the fourteenth–fifteenth centuries CE (Fig. 8:1) and a pinched lamp from the seventeenth–eighteenth centuries CE (Fig. 8:2). The sherds date Floors 106 and 115 to the Ottoman period at the earliest.
In the northeastern corner of the excavation square were two large, dressed stones, set on top of each other (L113; the upper stone: min. length 1.1 m; the lower stone: min. length 1.4 m; Fig. 9), which were incorporated into the wall of the Old City and protruded from it. Building 108 was constructed 0.2 m above the two stones. An accumulation of dark-brown soil (L112) containing debris that dates to the first half of the twentieth century, as well as pottery from the Ottoman and earlier periods, and a fragment of a ceramic object that may be a figurine, abutted the stones (Figs. 8:3; 10).
The remains of Building 108 which were exposed in the excavation may be the northeastern corner of a large structure with no constructed floor. Based on the artifacts that were discovered in the accumulations beneath this building, it dates to the Late Ottoman period at the earliest. Floors 103, 106 and 115, and Channel 102, all predate the building and are ascribed to the Ottoman period. In the archive of the Mandatory Department of Antiquities (Folder 98) there are numerous reports from 1924–1947 of illicit dumping of refuse along the southern wall of the Old City between the Sulphur Tower and Zion Gate. This refuse was discovered in the excavation in Accumulations 100, 105, 107 and 112, below the building remains. The same folder in the Department of Antiquities archive also contained a photograph taken in 1933, of a small building that adjoined the Old City wall northeast of the Sulphur Tower (Fig. 11). The construction style of the building in the photo resembles that of Building 108. Other photographs show similar buildings near the northern wall of the Old City. These buildings were constructed inside cultivation plots which surrounded the Old City walls in the Late Ottoman period and the time of the British Mandate, and they were probably used as warehouses. A number of construction styles were discerned in the section of the city wall which was exposed in the excavation area, and these are apparently indicative of several building phases. Two stones (L113) were incorporated in the lower courses of the city wall and protruded from it. From the vicinity of the excavation area to the Sulphur Tower to the east, the lower courses of the wall (marked in blue in Fig. 3: Section 1–1) were built of small, coarsely dressed stones (max. length 0.5 m), while the upper courses were built of larger stones (max. length 1.5 m) with smooth surfaces (marked in green in Fig. 3: Section 1–1). The lower courses of the city wall in this area protrude to the south beyond the upper courses by as much as 0.2 m. The construction style of the lower courses in this area is similar to that of the sections of the wall from the Ayyubid period northwest of Jaffa Gate, whereas the construction style of the upper courses is characteristic of the wall from the Ottoman period. Thus it is possible that the bottom courses are remains of fortifications that date to the Fatimid, Crusader or Ayyubid periods, although the possibility that these are different building phases in the Ottoman city wall should not be ruled out.