yielded accumulations of clay mixed with sand and meager architectural remains. The latter included foundation courses built of one row of stones on a level of brown grumusol. The pottery from this stratum belongs to a late phase in the Middle Bronze Age I (MBIIA according to Stern and Lewinson-Gilboa 1993
Strata IX–VIII yielded accumulations and foundations similar to those in the previous stratum. It seems that the fortification remains that were uncovered in Yogev’s (1981) excavation should be attributed to one of these two strata. The pottery from this layer indicates that it dates from the MB II–III (MB IIB–C).
Stratum VII. The corner of a building (Fig. 3) constructed of wide walls with an opening set in it was unearthed in the northeastern part of the excavation area; this may have been the entrance to a fortified structure. Due to the limited exposure of the remains it was impossible to firmly identify the building or its nature. Based on the ashes revealed at the top of the accumulation, it seems that the building was destroyed by fire. Several pottery sherds were found, and they date the layer to the Late Bronze Age II.
Stratum VI. The remains of Stratum VII were overlain with remains of straight walls and several floor levels. As only a small portion of these remains was exposed, it was impossible to evaluate the nature of the building or buildings to which they belonged. The remains of this stratum were covered with a thick layer of ash, and shattered pottery vessels were found on the floors. It thus seems that this layer was also destroyed by fire. The numerous pottery vessels discovered in this stratum indicate that it dates from the LB II.
Stratum V. This layer was exposed more extensively than the previous ones, yielding a stronghold that was destroyed by an intense conflagration that caused some of the structure’s mud-brick walls to vitrify (Fig. 4). The floors of the stronghold were covered with layers of ash, which seem to indicate that the contents of the stronghold’s rooms and the building materials used in their roofs were burned. An oven and a large flat adjacent stone, probably used for preparing dough, were found in one of the rooms (Fig. 5). No in situ pottery vessels were found on the floors of the rooms, but the numerous sherds found in the accumulations (thickness 0.16 m), included many imported Cypriot vessels (Fig. 6) that date the stratum to the LB II.
Stratum IV yielded the remains of a stronghold that was built on the remains of Stratum V and utilized some of its walls as foundations. It seems that this stratum’s stronghold existed for a long time, as evidenced by several building phases and the raising of floor levels within it. Smashed pottery vessels were found in situ on the floors of the upper phase, indicating the destruction of the stronghold (Fig. 7). Two fragments of female figurines (Fig. 8; right 5.4 cm wide, left 4.6 cm wide) were discovered in the accumulations from this stratum. The pottery vessels found in the accumulations and on the floors should be ascribed to the LB II. At this stage in the research there is no evidence of chorological differences between Strata VII–IV.
Stratum III. Accumulations containing pottery sherds from the Iron, Persian and Hellenistic periods are ascribed to this stratum. Pits were found in the southeastern part of the excavation area. A probe excavated at the bottom of the mound, in the western part of the excavation, exposed a massive wall from the Persian period and a meager overlying wall from the Hellenistic period. A layer of stones (max. thickness 1 m; Fig. 9) was unearthed wherever a probe was excavated on the western and northern slopes of the tell, and numerous sherds from the Hellenistic period were found among the stones. These included Phoenician jars and imported amphorae, mainly from Rhodes. A seal impression that probably dates to 273 BCE was discerned on one of the handles of a Phoenician jar.
Stratum II is a dune of coarse sand (zifzif) that covered the site after the Hellenistic period (Fig. 10). At the top of the dune was a burial of an adult, whose legs were turned to the east; the burial could not be dated.
Stratum I comprise the remains of modern buildings belonging to the city of Nahariyya.
The excavation shed new light on the history of the northern part of Tel Nahariyya. It turns out that the construction of four strongholds followed the destruction of the Middle Bronze Age stronghold uncovered by Yogev, all of which were destroyed one after the other during the Late Bronze Age II. Presumably, these strongholds served a port where Nahal Gaʽaton emptied into the sea. Following this period there was a settlement hiatus at the site, and all that was found from the Iron Age and Persian period were mainly pottery sherds that are indicative of a nearby settlement at the top of the tell. The wall from the Persian period that was located at the bottom of the slope and the layer of stones from the Hellenistic period that was found on the western and northern slopes of the tell are related to human activity that took place west of the tell.