. Two simple rock-hewn winepresses were excavated (Fig. 2: F10, F14). In both winepresses, a through-hole was in the side of the treading floor. This may have been used for installing some type of auxiliary equipment during the operation of the winepress. Clay that had accumulated in the winepresses contained several abraded pottery sherds, which had apparently been swept to the site.
Winepress 10 had a rectangular-elliptical shaped treading floor (L119; length 1.85 m, width 1.9 m, max. depth 0.25 m; Figs. 3, 4) that sloped toward the southwest, so that it drained into a channel (0.1 × 0.7 m, depth 8 cm) leading to an elliptical collecting vat (L120; length 1.4 m, width 0.9 m, max. depth 0.5 m). A sump (diam. 0.3 m, depth 4 cm) was installed in the center of the vat.
was also equipped with a rectangular-elliptical shaped treading floor (L121; length 2.75 m, width 3.3 m, max. depth 0.2 m; Figs. 5, 6) that sloped toward the west. A through-hole (0.15 × 0.25 m) hewn in the western side of the treading floor led to an elliptical collecting vat (L122; length 1.2 m, width 1.05 m, max. depth 1 m). The vat was coated with plaster (average thickness 0.5 cm) mixed with pottery sherds— fragments of Abbasid-period zir
jars (Fig. 7:1, 2)—like an adjacent winepress excavated in the past (Spivak 2010).
Cupmarks. The cupmarks(Fig. 2: F1, F2, F4–F6, F8, F9, F13; average diam. 0.4 m, average depth 0.2 m) were hewn in bedrock outcrops. A shallow depression (average diam. 7 cm, average depth 2 cm) was hewn in the center of two cupmarks (F8, F9). Deposits of clay alluvium were found in all the cupmarks.
Basin. A fragment of an ex-situ rectangular stone basin (F3; 0.35 × 0.55 m, depth 0.25 m; Fig. 7:3) was found.
Rock cuttings. These are channels cut in the bedrock (2 × 6 cm, depth 4 cm), probably in preparation for detaching a stone from the bedrock; the stone was left unfinished.
. Two concentrations of unquarried natural flint (F11, F12) consisting of nodules, chunks and pieces of flint were documented in a rock cleavage. Near the rock cleavage, an accumulation of clay alluvium containing ex-situ
flint fragments and knapped flint items was removed.
Judging by previous studies in the Modiʽin region, these date from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (Spivak 2012a
The excavation results are consistent with the findings of past excavations in nearby sites, where agricultural installations in the hinterland of nearby settlements were unearthed. Hence there was extensive agricultural activity in the area during the Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods, and the installations were almost certainly used during at least one of these periods. The dating of Winepress 14 to the Abbasid period confirms this assumption. It is possible that the winepress was in use during earlier periods, and was converted during the Early Islamic period to produce some type of liquid, other than wine.