Area A
A rectangular building (5.5 × 7.5 m; Figs. 2, 3) comprising a courtyard (5.0 × 5.5 m) and two small rooms was unearthed on a hill. The outer walls of the building (W104, W122, W123) were constructed of large limestone and flint fieldstones, some of which were dressed, preserved from one to five courses high. Two inner walls (W108, W114) were constructed of medium-sized limestone blocks, some of which were dressed. A third inner wall (W132; Fig. 4), built of dressed chalk stones, was exposed in the southern part of the courtyard. It divides the courtyard into two sections, western (L135; Fig. 5) and eastern (L137; Fig. 6), with tamped-earth floors. A few potsherds were discovered in Floor 135, including a rim of a jug from the late Byzantine – Early Islamic periods (Fig. 7). The eastern part of a round installation containing ash (L131; Fig. 8) was exposed near W132. The two small rooms, located to the east of the courtyard, were divided by Partition Wall 114, which was preserved to the height of a single course. The wall delimiting the rooms on the east (W128) was partially preserved; collapsed stones from this wall were found inside the rooms. A floor paved with flat flint stones (L126; Fig. 9) was unearthed in the northern room, and a tamped-earth floor with a few potsherds (L120) was exposed in the southern room. Another floor (L136) was uncovered to the east of the rooms. To the north of the building, adjacent to Floor 137, was a tabun (L121; Fig. 10), which was partially enclosed by a wall (W112) of medium-sized limestone blocks, some of which were dressed. A layer of soil and small stones (L124) quarried from the hill was found to the west and south of the building, indicating that this part of the hill was hewn prior to constructing the building’s foundations.
Area B
Site 1. A square field tower (5.5 × 5.5 m; Figs. 11–13) was unearthed on a hill. Its walls (W250–W253) were built of large and medium-sized stones, some of which were dressed; W250 was partially hewn in the bedrock. The entrance to the tower was set in W253. A tamped-earth floor (L203) was laid over a bedding of small stones and soil (L262; Fig. 14) that levelled the bedrock. A hearth (L261; Fig. 15), comprising small burnt stones, was discovered within the tower; no finds were recovered. A triangular limestone block with what seems as a hewn shelf (Fig. 16) was placed mid-course on top of W250.
Site 2. A field wall (W254; length 3 m; Figs. 17, 18) was built of three rows of small dressed stones to the height of a single course.
Site 3 comprises an accumulation of stones (L205; 1 × 1 m; Figs. 17, 19).
Site 4. Chalcolithic-period flint items (below) were recovered from the gentle slope of the hill (225 sq m).
Flint Items from Site 4
Maya Oron
A total of 572 knapped flint items were collected from the surface (Table 1). They are made of local material from the Mishash and Nezer Formations, including gray and translucent gray-brown flint and striped brown-gray flint. Although the items are all surface finds, the assemblage appears to be culturally uniform, and most of the items are in an excellent state of preservation. It thus seems that they did not undergo significant post-deposition erosion.
The knapping debitage, which comprises a large part of the assemblage (N=419; Table 2), included mainly flakes, primary items, blades and core trimmings. The cores and core trimmings are indicative of the preparation of flakes, bladelets and small blades. The cores include amorphous flake cores (N=9), single striking-platform cores (N=8), bladelet cores (N=4; Fig. 20:1, 2) and small blade cores (N=3). Most of the tools are ad-hoc types; these include retouched blades (N=9), retouched flakes (N=7) and notches (N=4). Drills (Fig. 20:3, 4) and a sickle blade (Fig. 20:5) from the Chalcolithic period were also recovered.
Table 1. Flint items
Table 2. Knapping debitage
Primary items
Core trimmings
Burin spalls
The high percentage of the debitage and its composition suggest that this was a knapping site. The site’s proximity to the source of raw material strengthens this interpretation. The items are dated to the Chalcolithic period, suggesting that the site was in use during this period, although it may have been used in other periods as well.