The village of Dabburiya is located at the western fringes of Mount Tabor. Surveys conducted in the village documented remains and finds that date from the Hellenistic through the Ottoman periods (for background and references, see Hanna 2012).
Twenty-eight findspots associated with agricultural activity (Fig. 2:1–28), including a Middle Bronze Age winepress, rock surfaces and cupmarks, a cistern, a basin, field walls and stone-clearance heaps. These remains are part of the Dabburiya’s ancient agricultural hinterland. Field walls and stone-clearance heaps are prominent on the steep slope to the east of the excavation.
The winepress (Fig. 2:2). A rock-cut winepress was discovered on an extensive bedrock outcrop. The treading floor was square and shallow (L12; 1.0 × 1.8 m, depth 5 cm; Figs. 3, 4) with a cupmark in its center (L14; depth 0.1 m). Two through holes cut at the foot of the western wall of the treading floor led to a rectangular collecting vat (L11; 0.38 × 0.70 m, depth 0.25 m). A small sump was cut in the center of the vat’s floor (L17; depth 4 cm). An installation (L15; Fig. 5) hewn to the west of the collecting vat apparently served to tether an animal. A similar winepress with two holes was found at Tel Ta‘anach under the Middle Bronze Age city wall (Lapp 1969:13–14). Thus, these winepresses can be dated to the Middle Bronze Age or earlier.
Surfaces and cupmarks (Fig. 2:6). Four rock-cut surfaces (L41–L44; Figs. 6, 7) were found. Among them were seven round cupmarks of various sizes (L31–L35, L37, L40; Table 1). A shallow channel (L36) connected Cupmarks 32 and 33. Conceivably, the surfaces were used for crushing olives and the cupmarks for collecting the oil. Cupmarks are difficult to date. However, small, shallow cupmarks dated to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A are known throughout the country (Grosman and Goren-Inbar 2009:732–740).
Table 1. Cupmark measurements
Measurements (cm)
The cistern (Fig. 2:1). A round cistern (diam. 0.58 cm, depth 5.2 m; Fig. 8) was hewn in limestone. Its opening was set in a modern concrete square frame. The cistern was not excavated due to safety reasons.
The basin (Fig. 2:5). A rectangular basin (0.5 × 0.7 m, depth 0.4 m; Figs. 9, 10) was hewn into the nari rock.
Field walls (Fig. 2:3, 4). Findspot No. 3 consisted of two north–south oriented fieldstone walls (W24, W29; Figs. 11, 12) that adjoin a third, east–west wall (W21). Probes on both sides of W29 revealed that it was founded on a layer of clayish soil (thickness 0.6 m) which covered the bedrock. Another wall (length c. 12 m) was recorded at findspot No. 4.
Stone-clearance heaps (Fig. 2:7–28). Twenty-two stone-clearance heaps (diam. 2–3 m, average height 0.6 m) were identified. The excavation of Stone Clearance Heap 21 (Fig. 13) showed that it consisted of fieldstones of various sizes set on a layer of clayey soil (thickness 0.42 m) which covered the bedrock. A few worn potsherds, dated to the Middle Roman period (second–third centuries CE), were recovered.