Area D. The excavation yielded 86 glass items, half of which were identified and dated. All the glass vessels found in this area date from the late Byzantine and Umayyad periods. Four chunks of raw glass and industrial waste were recovered along with the vessels.
The glassware includes a fire-rounded beaker/bowl of a type that appeared in the Umayyad period; bowls with raised hollow ring bases; wineglasses with fire-rounded rims, decorated at times along the edge of the rim or below it with glass trails in a color different from that of the vessel, such as a wineglass decorated with a thin turquoise trail along the edge of the rim (Fig. 1:1); hollow ring bases belonging to wineglasses; various bottles with fire-rounded rims; bottles whose necks are decorated with thin and thick horizontal trails, such as a bottle decorated with a dark turquoise trail wound around the neck (Fig. 2:1); and bottles decorated with a wavy trail, characteristic of the late Byzantine and Umayyad periods. Glass lamps of the bowl-lamp type with a solid stem pinched lengthwise giving it a bead-like appearance (Fig. 1:3)—a type that is characteristic of the late Byzantine and Umayyad periods—was also found. The glass from these periods is typically very transparent, has numerous tiny bubbles and bears a blue and turquoise trail decoration.
Three of the glass chunks (length c. 5 cm) are of clean raw glass in three colors: one is blueish (Fig. 1:4), another is bluish green (Fig. 1:5) and the third is of an uneven greenish shade that is bluish green on one side and greenish yellow on the other (Fig. 1:6). Two of the chunks (Fig. 1:4, 6) have a triangular cross section, and the other (Fig. 1:5) has an amorphous cross section. The glass of these chunks is good quality, it is transparent and has no impurities. The fourth glass chunk is larger (length c. 10 cm) and is bluish green in hue. The quality of this chunk is poorer than that of the other three chunks: the glass is not clean, it is heavier than chunks of comparable size and it contains calcareous debris, making it opaque.
Area E. Only two glass items were discovered (not drawn): a fragment of a double-kohl bottle with an infolded rim that retains the stump of a handle, dated to the Byzantine period; and a simple bead—a narrow hoop with a wide hole of an opaque light blue shade, dated to the late Ottoman period.
Other than the four chunks of raw glass, no debris that indicates glass-vessel production was found at the site. Nevertheless, as the glass of the chunks is similar to that of the glass vessels, it seems that the ware was made using similar raw glass. It is thus plausible that a workshop for producing glass vessels operated at Usha during the late Byzantine–early Umayyad periods. Further evidence of the presence of a glassware workshop was uncovered in the extensive excavations conducted at the site under the direction of Y. Amitsur (Permit Nos. A-8177, A-8442). Evidence of a workshop of the same date has also been found at Ahihud (Porat and Getzov 2010), along with glassware that is very similar to that found at Usha. A salvage excavation at Zippori unearthed comparable vessels accompanied by industrial waste (Gorin-Rosen 2010). The evidence for the existence of a raw-glass industry alongside the production of glassware during this era at both Ahihud and Zippori suggests that these two industries may have existed alongside each other also in Usha’s industrial area. Thus, the finds uncovered from the current excavation are of great important.