During August 2002 a development survey was conducted in an area slated for the expansion of Modi‘in (Compound F [Buchman South]; Permit No. A-3674*; map ref. NIG 1998–520/6426–35; OIG 1498–520/1426–35). The survey, on behalf of the Antiquities Authority, was conducted by M. Haiman, L. Barda (photography and map preparation) and H. Khalaily.
Four concentrations of ancient remains were surveyed and are described below, from west to east (Fig. 1).
Kh. Umm el-‘Umdan (Fig. 1:1). Remains of walls, caves and tombs were surveyed on the southern fringes of the ruin, beyond the excavated area.
Antiquities surveyed in an agricultural area, extending across two spurs and several wadi channels east of Kh. Umm el-‘Umdan (Fig. 1:2), included fences built of two rows of stones, two animal pens (each diam. c. 10 m), dams in the wadi channels, rock-hewn winepresses, including a treading surface (c. 2.5 × 2.5 m) and natural caves that displayed signs of use and quarrying. Potsherds dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods were scattered on surface.
On a hill top (Fig. 1:3) a fence built of large stones in a single row delimited a compound (c. 10 × 20 m). Within and outside the demarcated area were cairns, some of which had an upright stone (up to 0.8 m high). A dressed rectangular stone (0.5 × 0.6 × 1.3 m) was in the middle of the compound. Natural flint outcrops, which were used to make flint implements, were dispersed throughout the area, as well as scatters of flakes, flint implements and stone pounders.
On the fringes of the surveyed area, in the vicinity of Horbat Hadat that lies beyond the limits of the survey, a prehistoric site, extending across an area of c. 300 × 500 m (Fig. 1:4), was recorded. A dense scatter of Neolithic flint implements and Chalcolithic potsherds were found. Hundreds of rock-hewn cupmarks were surveyed within the site. These could be divided into two types (Figs. 2-4): oval cup marks (c. 0.20 × 0.35–0.40 m), some of which linked by hewn channels and circular cup marks (diam. c. 0.10–0.15 m). Other elements surveyed included rounded rock-hewn basins (diam. c. 1 m, depth c. 0.2 m), cairns and wall sections. Habitation levels that included potsherds and flint implements of the Chalcolithic period were discerned in an area within the site, where the soil was eroded.
Antiquities surveyed in the vicinity of the site included rock-cuttings, tombs, buildings and scattered potsherds, dating to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. These potsherds probably belonged to the adjacent site of Horbat Hadat, which was not surveyed.