Three soil levels, slightly inclined to the south, were exposed in the northern and western parts of the excavation square (Fig. 2). The first level (A; L100, L101; depth 1.6–1.7 m) which was excavated with the aid of a backhoe, consisted of dark gray soil, a few medium-sized fieldstones and two–three layers of gravel. At the bottom was a tamped white layer (L104; thickness 2 cm). The second level (B; L102; thickness 0.6–0.7 m) consisted of light gray soil that was probably a continuation of the first level and contained three gravel layers: an upper layer (thickness 10–15 cm), which was the bedding for L104 from Level A, a middle layer (thickness c. 10 cm) and a bottom layer (thickness c. 10 cm) that was coarser than the upper two layers. The third level (C) included dark gray soil (L103, L105; thickness 1.1 m) with black spots therein, apparently burnt organic matter, and very small (gravel) and medium-sized fieldstones.

Two levels were noted in the eastern and southern parts of the square. The upper level included dark gray soil and small to medium-sized fieldstones; the level below it consisted of dark gray soil that contained small and medium-sized fieldstones and black spots. These levels paralleled Levels A and C.


Mixed, disarrayed potsherds were recovered from the three levels, including a variety of pottery types, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic period, whereas the majority of potsherds were from the Roman and Byzantine periods. Three unidentifiable coins, probably from the Byzantine period (fifth–sixth centuries CE), were discovered.

It seems these levels were a result of erosion, probably from the area of the Ophel and/or the Old City.