Phase 1 (Second Temple period). The foundation of the aqueduct (width 1.5–1.8 m) was set on a natural bedrock terrace and built of various-sized stones within a fill of white cement (max. height, including base 1.55 m; Figs. 2–5). The channel (height 0.6 m, width 0.5 m) was coated with a layer of white plaster. The exterior side of the aqueduct’s walls was entirely coated with gray plaster. Repairs and alterations, including six layers of plaster in one place, two plaster layers in another spot and always small stones incorporated in the exterior plaster layer, were visible.


Phase 2 (Ottoman period). A pipe, composed of ceramic sections (diam. 0.25 m, length 0.37 m), was inserted into the channel. A layer of various-sized stones and cement covered the pipe. The cover layer was removed in several places to enable ongoing maintenance and holes were drilled in the cement layer to access the pipe. Five holes (average diam. 0.1 m), one of which was covered with a stone, were spotted in one place (Fig. 6).