Remains of a rectangular building (3.5 × 6.5 m; Fig. 1), partly constructed of ashlars, were exposed beneath modern top soil. The structure’s walls (W10—width 1.2 m; W11, W21, W22—width 0.8 m) were built of dry construction, consisting of two rows of medium-sized stones, some of which were dressed, and a core of small stones between them. Only the western face of W10 was built of ashlars, which were dressed with drafted margins (Fig. 2). Only a small segment of W11 was exposed; it was mostly located beyond the excavation’s boundaries.Wall 21 was poorly preserved.The structure was paved with stone slabs of different sizes. A stone-slab bench was built in the room’s northwestern corner.
Two coins were discovered inside the building: one an antoninianus of Numerian minted at Lugdunum (283–284 CE; IAA 143327), the other dating to 395–408 CE (IAA 143326).Outside the building, adjacent to the western face of W10, were found potsherds that date mainly to the fourth century CE; glass artifacts from the Late Roman–Early Byzantine period (Gorin-Rosen, below); and two coins, one of Constantius II (351–361 CE; IAA 143324), the other from the last quarter of the fourth century CE (IAA 143325).
The ceramic finds include a locally-produced bowl (Fig. 3:1), imported bowls (Fig. 3:2, 3), Kefar Hananya-type cooking vessels (Fig. 3:4–10) and jars (Fig. 3:11–13) dating to the fourth century CE. Several potsherds were discovered below the foundation of W10, among them a base of a mortarium from the Persian period (Fig. 3:4), jars from the Hellenistic period (Fig. 3:14, 15) and a notched handle of a Galilean Coarse Ware pithos dating to the Persian or Hellenistic period (Fig. 3:16).
Glass Finds
Yael Gorin-Rosen
Eighteen glass fragments were discovered in the excavation, eleven of which were identified as fragments of vessels or industrial glass debris.The glass vessels include bowls with hollow folded rims, a hollow ring base,a solid base of a cup or juglet,a short funnel rim of a bottle or jugletdecorated with a trail that is the color of the vessel and wound beneath the rim,and a bottle rim decorated with trails wound around it.These represent common types of a variety of local vessels that date to the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods.None of the vessel fragments belong to types that can be dated unequivocally to the Byzantine period.
Three lumps of raw glass, differing in size and color, are of singular importance.The largest lump (length 4.3 cm), triangular in cross section, is greenish-bluish with yellowish green veins (L202; Fig. 4:1).Of the two other lumps discovered in the same basket (L104), one is light greenish-bluish (Fig. 4:2), the other of a yellowish-greenish hue with a triangular cross section (Fig. 4:3).The lumps of raw glass are not sufficiently sharp to have been used for cutting; it is therefore unlikely that they were suitable for any sort of handicraft.Thus, it seems that they were most likely intended to be melted in a glass kiln. They might have come from a small glass workshop which operated in the settlement. A larger amount of industrial debris from a glass workshop was discovered in nearby Peqi‘in (Gorin-Rosen 2008); it included, among other items, pieces of the kiln walls, to which glass adhered, as well as glass droplets, clear indications that glass was processed there.
These indications, which allude to the existence of a glass workshop at Horbat ‘Eved, are extremely important. It cannot be determined though if two glass workshops operated simultaneously in the adjacent settlements of Peqi‘in Ha-Hadasha and Peqi‘in, or if each workshop operated during a different period.
On the basis of the ceramic finds, glass artifacts and coins, the building discovered in the excavation, which was partially constructed of ashlars,dates to the fourth century CE.The ceramic finds from the Persian and Hellenistic periods, devoid of architectural context, augment similar finds collected in previous excavations and a survey and at the site, suggesting that the site was inhabited during these periods as well.