Road F2 (preserved length c. 150 m, width 2.5–3.0 m; Figs. 4–7). A roadbed (L109) of small stones set on tamped soil fill (max. thickness 0.5 m), covering a natural rock step, was exposed. The fill was delimited by walls (W7, W8) which were founded on the bedrock. They were built of large fieldstones, with a fill of small stones and soil between them. The tops of the walls protruded (height 0.5–0.9 m) above the level of the road and served as curbstones. Jar fragments from the Byzantine period (Fig. 8:5–7) and a coin dating to 383–395 CE (IAA 102006) were discovered in the fill.
Road F4 (length c. 70 m, width 3–4 m) was perpendicular to Road F2, and they may both be sections of a single road. It was constructed on the slope, following a fairly even contour line. The area was leveled with a fill of soil and small stones, which was supported on the lower side by a retaining wall (W9) and on the higher side by a row of stones (W10).
Stone-Clearance Heap F3 consists of fieldstones retained by a curved wall (W5; Fig. 9). Abraded pottery sherds dating to the Early Roman and Byzantine periods were found inside the heap (L10).
Cistern F5. A bell-shaped cistern hewn into the bedrock (exposed depth c. 2 m) was discovered c. 5 m southwest of Road F5. Remains of gray plaster were identified on the walls of the cistern. Worn pottery sherds ascribed to the Early Roman and Byzantine periods and a fragment of stone measuring-cup (Fig. 8:2) dating to the Early Roman period were found in the fill in the upper part of the cistern. A rectangular trough (0.7 × 1.3 m, depth 0.45 m) was hewn west of the cistern, in an area where the surface of the rock was rough and pitted, with many karstic depressions.
Field Tower F7. A semicircular field tower (diam. c. 2.5 m, wall thickness c. 0.5 m, height 0.4 m) was built next to the northern retaining wall of Road F2. Its floor (L114; thickness c. 0.15 m; Fig. 4) was made of small stones and tamped earthen fill between protruding sections of the bedrock. No datable finds were discovered.
Field Tower F8 was uncovered c. 30 m northeast of Field Tower 7. The tower consisted of a straight wall (W10; length 2.5 m, width 0.75 m; height c. 1 m; Figs. 10, 11) and a curved wall (W9; length c. 1.5 m, width 0.75 m, height c. 1.2 m), and a layer of tamped earth (L204; thickness 0.15–0.20 m) was deposited inside it to level the rough surface of the bedrock. No datable finds were discovered.
Winepress F10 was hewn in hard limestone, and consisted of a treading floor (L207; c. 2 × 2 m, max. depth 0.25 m; Figs. 12, 13) with no visible remains of plaster. A shallow, narrow hewn channel (L209; c. 0.2 × 0.2 m, depth c. 1 cm) in the northwestern wall of the treading floor conveyed the must to the collecting vat (L208; 1 × 1 m, depth 0.8 m). Patches of two layers of plaster survived on the walls and floor of the vat: an original layer of gray-white plaster, and over it a layer of yellow-white plaster. A broken roller (L241; diam. 0.5 m, length c. 1 m), which was perhaps used for pressing the grapes after treading, was found next to the center of the treading floor’s southern wall. Approximately 0.4 m east of the treading floor was a depression (L240), probably natural, possibly to place a jar. No datable artifacts were discovered. Similar rock-hewn winepresses were used during the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman period. The winepress, which was entirely hewn in the hard limestone, is still intact, and was apparently in use until recent generations, possibly by Arab peasants who resided in the vicinity and produced grape honey.
Winepress F11 consisted of a square treading floor (L218; 4 × 4 m, max. depth c. 0.5 m; Figs. 14–16) hewn in the hard limestone. The height of the walls varied (0.05–0.75 m) because of the steep incline of the rock. Remains of gray plaster were discovered on the floor and the sides in the southern part of the treading floor. Above the sides of the treading floor, Walls 22–24 were built of two rows of medium and large stones. They were preserved to a height of two courses, which retained remains of gray plaster. No stones survived above the northern side but remains of plaster were identified. A settling pit (L222; c. 0.8 × 0.8 m, depth c. 0.5 m) with a sump at the bottom (L228; diam. c. 0.25 m, depth 0.1 m), was hewn near the northwestern corner of the treading floor. patches of gray plaster remained on the walls of the settling pit. A shallow channel (L223; length 0.25 m, width and depth c. 0.15 m) conveyed the must from the treading floor to the settling pit. A similar channel (L229; length 0.2 m, width and depth c. 0.15 m) extended from the settling pit to the collecting vat (L221; c. 1 × 2 m, depth c. 1.5 m). The floor of the collecting vat had remains of white mosaic, and an elliptical sump (L234; diam. 0.4 m, depth 0.15 m) was hewn in its center. Two adjacent channels (L224, L225) conveyed the must directly from the treading floor to the collecting vat. It seems that direct conveyance of the must took place when, after treading, the grapes were wrapped and pressed in a piece of cloth (e.g. a sack), which filtered the must and separated it from the pomace, obviating the need for the settling pit. Two cupmarks were found northeast of the winepress and probably predate it; a jar was probably placed in the larger of the two. A rock-hewn cupmark (L236; diam. c. 0.25 m, depth 0.15 m) was exposed c. 2 m east of the treading floor. A fragment of a cooking pot from the Early Roman period (Fig. 8:1) and a coin of Alexander Jannaeus (IAA 102007) were found alongside the eastern wall of the treading floor. Fragments of Byzantine-period jars (Fig. 8:3, 4) were exposed in the soil and stone fill that covered the treading floor and the collecting vat.
Quarry F12 (3.5 × 3.5 m; Figs. 17, 18) was partially excavated. Marks of quarrying and detaching large rectangular stones (L117; c. 0.5 × 1.1 m) were exposed between two rock cliffs. No datable finds were discovered.
Pit Grave F13 (L301; 0.65 × 1.80 m, depth c. 1 m; Figs. 19, 20) was hewn in the bedrock. It was robbed, and subsequently filled with soil, stones and several pottery sherds dating to the Byzantine period. Dark-brown soil fill remained on the floor. No human bones were found.
Karstic depressions (L302, L303) were exposed c. 2 m south of the grave. Approximately 5 m to the west, a cupmark was hewn in the rock (L304; diam. c. 0.5 m, depth 0.15 m). Another cupmark was found c. 10 m to the southwest (L508; diam. 0.45 m, depth 0.15 m). No datable artifacts were discovered in the cupmarks.
Burial Cave F15 had a courtyard (L501; 2 × 4 m; Figs. 21, 22) with an opening (L502; width 0.8 m, height c. 1 m) that led to a central burial chamber (L503; 4 × 4 m). Loculi (L504, L505) were hewn in the western and southern walls of the chamber, and a niche (L506) was hewn in its eastern wall. Remains of a burial bench were identified along the eastern and southern walls. The cave was not excavated.
The complex of installations and buildings that was found in the excavation area, is for the most part related to the type of agricultural activity that is characteristic of the settlements in the Shephelah: cultivation and stone clearance; the large stones were used to construct field towers. The winepresses indicate that the agriculture in the area was based on viticulture, which is typical of the region through all the historical periods. The road adjacent to the installations was probably a field road that linked the agricultural areas with the settlement. The winepresses and the artifacts inside them date the beginning of activity at the site to the Early Roman period. The measuring-cup fragment alludes to a Jewish population that was active there.