The excavation was conducted on the hill atop which Horbat Qoshet is located. Two areas (A, B; Fig. 1) were opened: Area A (125 sq m) on the summit of the hill, east of a Mekorot water reservoir, and Area B (300 sq m) on the northwestern slope of the hill. The excavation revealed remains of a settlement dating primarily from the Roman period.
A past excavation conducted at the site exposed chalk quarries and cisterns from the Roman and Byzantine periods (Syon 2017 [Fig. 1: A-5465], and see historical overview and references therein).
Area A (Fig. 2) revealed a quarry and walls, founded on bedrock and preserved up to five courses high. The walls appear to have been fences; based on pottery, most of them date from the Roman period, with some dating from the Byzantine period. Middle and Late Bronze Age potsherds were found on bedrock without any architectural context.
Area B revealed a rock-cut cave, walls and structure remains, stone quarries, stone heaps and rock-cut agricultural installations, such as a trough, a cistern and a winepress. The ceiling of the cave collapsed (Fig. 3); therefore, it was only partly excavated, revealing a rock-cut corridor, a rock floor and possibly a staircase leading inside. Pottery found within the cave dates its earliest use to the Roman period. A wall exposed north of the cave was constructed of two rows of large stones. Also found were remains of structures, constructed of large fieldstones and founded on the remains of one of the stone quarries. The quarries (Fig. 4) revealed quarrying steps and cutting marks of stones. After falling out of use, some of the quarries were turned into garbage dumps, yielding numerous animal bones and potsherds. The bell-shaped cistern was cut in a courtyard of a structure and possibly served as a water cistern.
The finds from the excavation possibly suggest a settlement at the site as early as the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, but the primary settlement phase at this part of the site was during the Roman period. A preliminary reading of the pottery suggests a local origin, featuring wares like Kefar Hananya and Shihin that are commonly found in Jewish Galilee. The settlement continued into the Byzantine period but appears to have contracted to the upper part of the hill. The pottery assemblage from the site lacks imported bowls characteristic of the Byzantine period in the Galilee. Fragments of a menorah relief engraved on a marble slab, found during a survey, probably relate to the remains of a public building documented at the site (Syon 2017), supporting the assumption that Horbat Qoshet was a Jewish settlement. It may have been founded in the Early Roman period and abandoned in the Byzantine period.