Ruins (18, 22, 54). A limekiln, olive press piers, standing in situ, a crushing basin (yam), a cistern (?) and a colored mosaic that included a Greek inscription and crosses (Figs. 2, 3) were documented at Site 18. The site is dated to the Byzantine period, based on the inscription and crosses. Three buildings, two rock-hewn winepresses and a quarry were documented at Site 22; this site might have been a farmstead. The northern of the three buildings is rectangular (3×5 m), built of medium and large stones and preserved a single course high. Two adjacent winepresses were documented c. 15 m south of the building. The eastern winepress consisted of a rectangular treading floor (3.0×3.5 m) with a circular pit hewn in its center (diam. 1.5 m, depth 0.5 m to top of soil fill), which might have been used to secure a press screw. A square settling pit (1×1 m, depth 0.5 m to top of soil fill) is west of the treading floor and an elliptical collecting vat (1.5×3.0 m; it is covered with vegetation) is west of the settling pit; the three elements are connected by wide channels (width c. 0.2 m). The western winepress consisted of an elliptical treading floor (c. 4×5 m) and a collecting vat (covered with vegetation). Another rectangular building (c. 6–7×12 m), built of medium and large roughly hewn stones and preserved two courses high, was documented c. 20 m south of the two winepresses. Numerous building stones are scattered around the structure. A quarry (3×5 m) that might have exploited the presence of an earlier winepress was documented c. 4 m east of the building. The third structure was documented west of the building; it is also rectangular (15×20 m) and built of large roughly hewn stones, but most of it is covered with earth and vegetation. An agricultural enclosure wall of building stones in secondary use was documented near the structure. Potsherds ascribed to the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods are scattered on the surface of the site (Fig. 4). A concentration of building stones (c. 30×30 m) was documented at Site 54 and c. 6 m north of it were two hewn openings, c. 2 m apart, perhaps leading to the same space. A building or square installation (3×3 m) was documented c. 40 m west of the stone concentration; it was preserved two courses high and near it was an opening of an underground cavity (covered with vegetation).
Buildings (15, 19, 25, 37). A rectangular building (3×5 m; Fig. 5), whose walls (width 0.6 m) consisted of two rows of roughly hewn medium-sized stones and a core of fill comprising soil and small stones, was documented at Site 15. The walls were preserved to maximum four courses high. An opening was set in the eastern wall of the building and a window was installed in the northern wall. A square building (5×5 m), whose walls were built of one row of medium and large roughly hewn stones, was documented at Site 19. A circular building (diam. 3.5 m; Fig. 6), built of a single row of large roughly hewn stones and preserved a maximum of three courses high, was documented at Site 25. The building was filled with soil and small stones. A rectangular building (3.0×4.5 m), built of two rows of medium and large fieldstones and preserved a single course high, was documented at Site 37. The building contained fill of soil and small stones.
Quarries (14, 51). rock-hewn steps and severance channels of stones were discerned in several bedrock outcrops at Site 14 (area size c. 1 dunam; Fig. 7). A quarry (3×3 m, depth 0.15 m) was documented at Site 51. A bedrock block, whose quarrying was incomplete, remained in the quarry’s center; this might be an incomplete winepress.
Cave Dwellings (39, 44). A cave (2×3 m) was documented at Site 39. A wall built of a single row of medium-sized roughly hewn stones is set across its opening (0.8×0.8 m; Fig. 8). This might be a natural cave that was enlarged by means of crude quarrying. The beginnings of a rock-hewn niche were discerned in the northern side of the cave. A courtyard (3×4 m) in the cave’s façade is enclosed by a terrace wall. A rock-hewn cave (2.5×7.0 m) with a circular opening (diam. c. 1 m; Fig. 9) in its ceiling was documented at Site 44. The fill in the cave accumulated to a height of c. 1.5 m below the ceiling. The surface around the opening is raised, perhaps as a result of discarding fill that was removed from the cave at the time it was hewn.
Stone Clearance Heaps (3, 5, 7, 40, 45, 47, 48, 50). The heaps are composed of fieldstones and small and medium roughly hewn stones. Some of the heaps are rectangular (1.5–3.0×2.0–8.0 m at Sites 3, 5, 7, 40, 50) and some are circular (diam. 3–5 m at Sites 45, 47, 48).
Rock-hewn Installations (8, 9, 17, 27, 36, 42, 53).An installation, which consists of two elliptical basins (0.30×0.35 m, 0.3×0.6 m; Fig. 10), connected by a short channel, was documented at Site 8.A cupmark that might be natural was documented c. 10 m north of the installation and c. 10 m northeast of the cupmark was another basin (0.35×0.50 m).A rock-hewn wall (length 1.5 m, height 0.3 m), possibly belonging to a winepress, and a hewn surface (1.5×2.0 m; covered with soil) east of it were documented at Site 9.Two hewn shafts, 2 m apart, were documented at Site 17. The shafts could be cistern openings (the western opening—diam. 0.9 m, depth 1.2 m to top of fill; the eastern opening—diam. 0.55 m, depth 0.5 m to top of fill; Fig. 11). Two basins (diams. 0.3 m, 0.4 m, depth 0.2 m to top of fill) were discerned c. 1 m apart near the eastern shaft. A rock-cut corner (0.7×1.0 m) was documented at Site 27. Two shallow square surfaces (1×1 m, 2×2 m), possibly belonging to winepresses, were documented at Site 36.Many hewn cupmarks of various sizes were discerned around the bedrock surfaces.A winepress that includes a square treading floor (1.5×1.5 m, depth c. 0.1 m) and a collecting vat (covered with vegetation) was documented southeast of the surfaces. A shallow, trapezoidal surface (0.8–1.0 m×1.3 m, depth 0.1 m; Fig. 12) that slopes westward was documented at Site 42; there might be a collecting vat where a shrub is growing, near its western side. A hewn installation or quarry (2×3 m) was documented at Site 53.
Built Installations (12, 21, 29, 30, 33–35, 43, 46).Installations of different shape (1.0–2.0×2.5–4.0 m): rectangular—at Sites 12, 21, 29, 30, 34, square—at Sites 43, 46 and elliptical—at Site 35, which were built of a single row of fieldstones or roughly hewn stones, were documented. These are presently filled with soil and small stones (Fig. 13).
Winepresses (16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 49, 55). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (2×3 m) and a rectangular collecting vat (0.7×1.5 m, depth 0.6 m to top of fill) was documented at Site 16. A hewn perforation in the eastern side of the treading floor connects the floor to the vat. A winepress was documented at Site 20 (Fig. 14). It consists of a rectangular treading floor (2.5×3.0 m), a settling pit (0.55×0.60 m, depth 0.2 m to top of fill) hewn in the floor and a rectangular collecting vat (1.1×1.3 m, depth 1.6 m to top of fill) next to the floor. The bottom of the collecting vat is curved, and it is possible that an entrance shaft to an underground cavity was hewn in it after the winepress was no longer in use. Three winepresses and a quarry were documented at Site 23. Two of the winepresses were c. 1.5 m apart in the north of the site. The northern of the two winepresses includes a square treading floor (2.5×2.5 m) with a square pit in its center, probably to anchor a press screw, and a collecting vat (covered with vegetation) northeast of it.The southern of the two winepresses is hewn in a bedrock surface that slopes east and includes an elliptical treading floor (1.3×6.0 m), surrounded by two drainage channels that empty into an elliptical vat (0.4×0.6 m; covered with vegetation; Fig. 15).The quarry (3×3 m, max. depth 0.4 m) was documented c. 10 m west of the southern winepress.The third winepress was documented c. 15 south of the quarry and it includes a rectangular treading floor (1.2×2. 0 m) and a rectangular settling pit (0.4×0.7 m, depth c. 0.3 m to top of fill) to the east; the eastern side of the settling pit, as well as the collecting vat that was east of the settling pit, were destroyed during later quarrying activity.A winepress was documented at Site 24; it consists of a square treading floor (2.5×2.5 m) and an elliptical collecting vat (1.2×1.5 m; covered with vegetation).A winepress, which consists of a rectangular treading floor (1.0×1.3 m, depth c. 0.1 m; Fig. 16) with a round hewn pit (diam. c. 0.3 m) in its center for anchoring a press screw and a rectangular collecting vat to the south (0.45×0.60 m, depth c. 0.4 m), was documented at Site 26.Another such installation (?) that is almost completely covered with earth was documented c. 20 m south of the winepress.A winepress that includes a shallow rectangular treading floor with rounded corners (2.0×2.4 m, depth 0.1 m) and a collecting vat (0.8×0. 8 m; covered with vegetation) was documented at Site 49. Two winepresses were surveyed at Site 55.The northern winepress includes a square treading floor (3×3 m) that has a semicircular hewn groove in its eastern wall and a rectangular collecting vat (1.0×1.5 m) to its south, connected by a hewn channel (width 0.1 m, depth 0.1 m).The southern winepress includes an elliptical treading floor (diam. 0.8–1.0 m) and a circular collecting vat (diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.4 m to top of fill).
Farming Terraces (4, 13). A terrace wall (length c. 30 m), built of medium and large roughly hewn stones and oriented north–south, was documented At Site 4.The wall delimited an extensive agricultural area in the opening of a wadi channel.A terrace wall (length c. 40 m), aligned north–south and built of two rows of medium and large fieldstones with a core of soil and small stones, was documented at Site 13.
Field Walls (6, 11). A field wall (length 3 m), built of a single row of medium fieldstones and oriented north–south, as documented at Site 6. A field wall (length c. 20 m) was documented at Site 11; oriented north–south, it was built of a single row of large fieldstones in its northern part and two rows of medium fieldstones in its southern part.
Remains of a Road (31). An ancient road was documented; it runs in a north–south direction (length 30 m) and was delimited by two parallel walls, c. 3 m apart.The walls were built of a single row of large fieldstones that were placed between protruding bedrock outcrops.
Architectural Elements (1, 2, 41, 52). An irregular shaped stone (0.4×0.6 m; Fig. 17) decorated with a palm frond within an arch was discerned at Site 1. The stone was incorporated in secondary use in a modern farming terrace. A crushing installation of an olive press (yam; diam. 1.7 m, height 0.8–1.3 m; Fig. 18), whose quarrying was incomplete, probably due to a crack in the bedrock that caused it to fracture, was surveyed at Site 2. A stone column (diam. 0.7 m, length 0.9 m; Fig. 19), incorporated in secondary use in a field wall was documented at Site 41 and a stone column that broke into two sections (diam. 0.43–0.48 m, total length 1.6 m; Fig. 20) was documented at Site 52.
Cupmarks (10, 28, 32, 38). Four cupmarks, situated 5–7 m apart, were documented at Site 10; the northern cupmark is round (diam. 0.4 m, depth 0.1 m). An elliptical cupmark (diam. 0.3–0.4 m, depth 5 cm) was documented to the south and another elliptical cupmark (diam. 0.45–0.60 m, depth 7 cm) was documented further south. To the south, a large elliptical cupmark was documented (basin? diam. 0.5×0.6 m, depth 0.15 m). A single cupmark (diam. 0.35 m) was documented at Site 28. A large cupmark (basin? diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.2 m to top of fill), hewn in a boulder that displayed quarrying lines, was documented at Site 32. Three small shallow cupmarks were documented c. 4 m northwest of that cupmark. A single cupmark (diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.2 m to top of fill) was documented at Site 38.
Most of the surveyed sites are characteristic of agricultural regions.Two types of sites are noteworthy, those with built installations and those with winepresses.The built installations were probably used as shaft planters for planting trees.Similar installations are very common in the Bet Shemesh region, and many were surveyed in the area of the new neighborhoods of Ramat Bet Shemesh (see License S-173/2010).As for the winepresses, the large number of these installations that was documented in such a relatively small area indicates that the wine industry was an important component of the region’s economy.The residents of the settlement at Horbat Ganim and in the farmhouses in the vicinity (e.g., Site 22) were presumably engaged in growing vineyards and in wine production. Site 18 is the only site in the survey that is dated with certainty to the Byzantine period, due to a Greek inscription that was discovered within a mosaic pavement. This pavement was probably part of a small church, in whose immediate vicinity was a cistern and an olive press.The location of a Christian house of worship on this hill is not accidental, since many churches and monasteries are known in the region, for example at Kefar Zekharya, Khirbat en-Nabi Bulus, Kh. Fattir, Deir el-‘Asfur, Tel Bet Shemesh and Deir Rafat.In addition, this hill overlooks the area of the Beit Jimmal monastery where according to tradition, St. Stephen is buried.