The excavation took place on the northeastern slope of the ridge on which Khirbat Umm edh-Dhiyab is situated, near a saddle from which extend two ravines, one northward, to Naal Zanoa, and the other southward, to Naal Sansan. The slope features numerous rocky outcrops and few shallow pockets of soil. Three excavation areas were opened (A–C; Fig. 2), revealing a few ad hoc tools and debitage belonging to a flint and quartzite industry produced on medium and small nodules that were quarried and collected at the site. The excavation also uncovered several cupmarks hewn in the rock outcrops and a late agricultural terrace. The space between Area A and Area B had been disturbed by mechanical equipment prior to the excavation.
A scattering of flint, including flint artifacts from the Neolithic period, and signs of flint quarrying had been previously documented on the slope (License No. S-522/2014). A nearby excavation uncovered quarries, a winepress, a cistern, rock-cuttings, a tomb, a road and agricultural installations (Greenwald 2017).
Area A. Three excavation squares were opened at the foot of a sloping outcrop, where prior to the excavation one could discern the remains of quarrying and flaking of medium and small flint nodules (Fig. 3). Higher up the hill were two cupmarks (Fig. 4) cut into a small rock outcrop. On the surface at the foot of the larger outcrop were remains of a wall (W107) built of fieldstones along a northwest–southeast axis—a poorly preserved terrace wall. The wall was abutted on the west by intentional soil fills (Fig. 5) typical of agricultural terraces in the area. At the base of the soil fills was a layer of stones (L109), which included a few flint artifacts and worn, non-diagnostic sherds. Most of the flint artifacts were produced from local raw material; these include flake cores (Fig. 6:2) and flakes, as well as blade cores (Fig. 6:3) and blades. One item was produced from the non-local material: a Levallois core (Fig. 6:1) with a patina that differs from that of the locally produced items.
Area B (Fig. 7). Two adjacent excavation squares were opened on an outcrop at the foot of the slope. At the top of the outcrop were three hewn cupmarks, not far from three horizons of medium and small flint nodules. At the bottom of the excavation area were a few flint artifacts made of local raw material, including cores and blade-production debitage. A few worn sherds were also found.
Area C (Fig. 8). Two excavation squares (E4, H4) were opened on an outcrop containing large flint nodules; flint artifacts were identified on the surface. Square E4 yielded several flint items made from local raw material, including flake cores. Square H4 yielded only a few flint items. Worn sherds were found in both squares. A sample of quartzite was taken from a nodule found in another square (D3) for comparison with finds from other excavations.
The clear signs of quarrying on the rock outcrops and the knapped flint nodules attest to the quarrying of flint and quartzite nodules and to the use of nodules for a flint-tool industry. Nevertheless, the excavation yielded only a few flint items—several ad hoc tools, including a scraper, flake and blade cores, a fragment of one flint hammerstone, as well as some debitage, including flakes, blades and one core-trimming element of blade cores. This may be due to the rather small size of the nodules and the limited number of horizontal outcrops with soil pockets in which artifacts could have accumulate. The only clearly diagnostic item found in the excavation was a Levallois core, but because it was found in a soil fill in a terrace is made of non-local flint, it does not help in dating the quarrying activity at the site. Nor do the worn sherds found in the excavation, as they are obviously not associated with the quarrying. The sherds date from the Iron Age to the Ottoman period—the periods of the remains uncovered at sites at nearby sites. The finds from the excavation indicate that the site was a source of local flint at least as early as the Chalcolithic period. However, this quarrying site seems to have served as an ad hoc source of raw material rather than a major source for extensive community quarrying, as those uncovered in the Modi‘in area, the Shephelah and the Galilee.