Stratum II—Middle Bronze II
Remains of this settlement were founded directly upon the sterile basal sand layer and included two eroded mud-brick walls along with several habitation surfaces and an occupational buildup (height 0.2–0.7 m).
Two mud-brick walls were identified in the northern portion of the excavated area (W5, W6; Figs. 2, 3). Wall 5, preserved only 0.1 m high, was composed of dark brown mud-brick material, yet no clear outlines of bricks could be discerned. To the south of this wall was a light gray debris buildup that included several concentrations of small stones (L214, L236; Fig. 4), all founded upon the sterile sands that were revealed in a limited probe (L219). To the east of W5, the outline of another mud-brick wall (W6) was uncovered. This wall was of similar orientation to W5, built of similar material, and preserved three courses high (0.3 m). To the southwest of W6 and southeast of W5 was a debris buildup (L214, L220, L222) founded upon the sterile sands. 
In the southern portion of the excavated area, similar debris buildups that often included concentrations of small stones were identified (Fig. 5).These depositions were found at a lower level than those of the northern portion of the excavated area and perhaps constituted the remains of an earlier phase of Stratum II that was not identified in the northern portion of the excavated area; alternately, they may possibly reflect a sharp gradient that sloped down to the south. These depositions in the south included beaten-earth surfaces (L225, L218/233, L230, L234 and L237). Surface 230 was overlaid by a depositional buildup (L216, L223) into which a rounded pit full of gray-white ash was cut (Figs. 3: Section 1-1; 6). This pit may indicate a later phase of occupation that goes with the beaten-earth surfaces, L236 and L214, described earlier. More debris buildups (L235) were identified in the southeastern portion of the excavated area, yet these could not be linked to any architectural remains of the period.
The ceramic remains from all these occupational deposits is associated with the Middle Bronze IIA–B transition (Figs. 7–9). The assemblage included bowls with slightly incurving rim (Fig. 7:1–6), shallow and deep carinated bowls (Fig. 7:7–12), kraters (Fig. 8: 1–3), cooking pots with sharply everted rims (Fig. 8:4–6), coarse cooking pots with V-shaped sides and a rope and punctured decoration below a simple rim (Fig. 8 :7, 8), store jars with thickened, elongated rims (Fig. 9:1–6) and store jars with thickened, out-turned rims (Fig. 9:7, 8). Although no complete store jars profile was recovered, most appear to have had a flattened thickened base (Fig. 9:9, 10).  
Stratum I—the Byzantine–Early Islamic periods
After an occupational gap of nearly 3000 years, the area was reused during the late Byzantine and Early Islamic periods (seventh–tenth centuries CE). Remains from this time-span consisted of a large structure, several pits and installations (see Figs. 2, 3). Although not all these elements were necessarily contemporary and not physically connected, they are collectively included under the designation of Stratum I.
The walls associated with the structure were built of large to medium-sized fieldstones and had subterranean foundations (depth c. 1 m), dug into the previous remains of Stratum II (see Fig. 3: Section 2-2). The walls appear to delineate a large open area, possibly a courtyard that may have been surrounded by rooms, which are probably located beyond the excavated area. In several locales, the stone foundations were removed, while the outline of the wall could be discerned in robber trenches of unclear date (Fig. 10). An intact section of a stone foundation was revealed in Squares B2 and C2 (W1, see Figs. 5, 6); next to it were the partial remains of a beaten-earth floor with numerous small stones (L205). The lack of indicative material associated with this structure precludes its dating. 
Adjacent to the northern face of W1 were the partial remains of a tabun (L210) and a pit (L224; Fig. 11). Tabun 210 appears to have partially cut into W1 and is probably of a later date; it contained two bowls, one with fine red slip and burnish of Late Roman date (Fig. 12:1), and the other of gray-black material (Fig. 12:2) that could also be of Ottoman date. Both bowls may actually have been intrusive so that the date of the tabun itself remains unclear. The pit was found full of stones and potsherds that included the lower part of a transport amphora of unclear date (Fig. 12:3). Robber trenches (L221) in the eastern portion of the excavated area appear to delineate the presence of another wall (W7), of which no stone foundations were identified. Another wall (W8), also identified by a robber trench, was found at a right angle to W7 to its east. To the east of the W7 robber trench, another pit was identified (L226; Fig. 13), yet the relationship between this pit and the other elements associated with this stratum is unclear. This pit included much ceramic material, including the better portion of a jug (Fig. 12:4) and a complete small deep bowl (Fig. 12:5), which may both be dated to the Abbasid period. In addition, an intact lamp (Figs. 12:6) and the fragmentary remains of a female figurine (Figs. 12:7) were found. Except for the figurine, the ceramic remains from this pit may be associated with the Abbasid period (eighth–ninth centuries CE). The figurine fragment is enigmatic as it is very similar to Iron Age II Judean figurines, yet was found in a much later context. This object could have been a curio that was picked up in the nearby region, where remains of Iron Age II have been excavated nearby (HA-ESI 112:65*).
Two walls (W2, W3), joined at a right angle to one another, were exposed in the northern portion of the excavated area; the walls, preserved a single course high, were built of medium to small-sized fieldstones. Wall 2 appears to have continued westward and may have linked up with W9, another remnant of a robber trench that was only partially excavated. Wall 9 was found in roughly the same line as W4, a short wall segment in the western portion of the excavated area. These wall foundations and their robber trenches all appear to delineate an area (8 ´ 11 m) that is interpreted as an open courtyard of a large building of unclear date, although this structure clearly postdated all remains of Stratum II. The robber trenches of W8 and W3 suggest the presence of rooms around this space.
 A very large intrusion that cut deeply through the Stratum II remains was identified in the eastern portion of the excavated area. At the bottom of the intrusion, the remains of a large plastered pool were found. The walls of the pool were constructed from a concrete-like gray material coated with a reddish brown ceramic-like plaster (Fig. 14). An agglomeration of medium to small-sized stones set into a hard plaster and ash mortar was found atop these walls. Manual excavation was only able to uncover the southwestern quarter of this pool down to its plaster floor (L231). Consequently, the outline of the pool (3.7 ´ 4.2 m; see Fig. 2) was exposed with the aid of mechanical equipment. The northern portion of the pool, found at a higher step up, proved to have been much deeper than the southern one, although excavation was not able to reach the floor in this area. The ceramic remains upon the plastered floor of the pool included a large deep bowl fragment with a thickened and incurving rim (Fig. 12:8) and store jars with an upright neck (Fig. 12:9, 10) that may be dated from the Byzantine to the Abbasid periods (seventh–ninth centuries CE), as well as a segment of a ceramic water-pipe (Fig. 12:11). Mechanical trenching c. 50 m to the east of this pool revealed a similar installation (A. Re’em, pers. comm.).
The ceramic remains associated with the Stratum I occupation, as well as those recovered from the plastered pool, posit a date ranging from the seventh to the tenth centuries CE. Remains of habitation surfaces associated with Stratum I were extremely limited and did not produce any clear indicative material. Fragmented glass objects were also discovered, dating to the Early Roman, Late Roman, Early Byzantine and Early Islamic periods as well. The robber trenches themselves are later than the Abbasid period, although no material later than this period was found within them.
Against expectations, the lack of in-situ material from the Early Bronze Age in the excavated area indicates that the precinct of the EB habitation at Lod was smaller than expected. The presence of an MB II occupation is unexpected in this area. Scant evidence of this latter period, consisting of pits, a tabun and ceramic evidence have been reported to the north (ESI 112:63*–65*, termed Middle Bronze I). Remains of the Abbasid period are common to Lod.
The Flint Industry
Hamoudi Khalaily
A total of 267 flint artifacts were collected from Stratum II of the present excavation, including nineteen tools. In addition, two hand stones made of flint pebbles were encountered. The presence of all reduction components, including chunks and chips (Table 1), as well as the composition of the tool collection (see below) indicate that the flint industry was on-site. The relative frequencies of waste and tools reinforce this assumption. Most of the items are fresh, with no patina but many, not only waste material but also tools, are covered with lime cortex.
The raw material used in this flint industry is Meshash flint, common to this area. The flint is of medium quality, light gray in color with lime inclusions. The tools, shaped on good quality flint, range in color from light gray to brown and are similar in texture to the Eocene flints used for the Early Bronze Age Canaanean industry.
The flint industry is flake industry. The amount of flakes and primary flakes in the waste material is c. 80% and most of the ad-hoc tools were also made on flakes. The flakes are generally large; the length of more than two-thirds is c. 3 cm, and the remainder is 2–3 cm long. Blades and bladelets are non-standard and were made from local Meshash flint. Only formal tools were shaped on standard blades. In addition, nine of the ten discovered cores are flake cores; five are amorphous in shape, two have scars from two striking platforms and the other two flake cores have single platforms. Only one core is a blade core that bears unidirectional scars. All the cores are small and probably overly exploited.
Table 1. The flint breakdown
Primary elements
Tools(Fig. 15)
A total of 19 tools with continous retouch were classified. Eleven of the tools were flakes and the rest were prepared on blade blanks. Although the nature of the industry is flake, the formal tools were shaped on blades. The typological classification of the tools includes
seven sickle blades,five retouched flakes, three scrapers, two awls and two retouched blades.
Two of the sickle blades were shaped on wide blades that have an arched back (Fig. 15:1, 2); one of the two had probably a triangular shape, although one of its sides is broken (Fig. 15:3). The other five sickle blades are large geometric forms. These were shaped from wide blades or large thin flakes. Two blades (Fig. 15:4, 5) have a trapezoid shape with two parallel trunctions and one has a working edge placed on the widest side (Fig. 15:6). All the geometric sickles display sickle gloss on both sides of their working edges. The formal tools include two typical Canaanean sickle blades, positively intrusive from an earlier occupation. 
Judging by the dominant type of sickles and the minor presence of the Canaanean industry in this assemblage, the flint assemblage may be dated to post-Early Bronze Age, most probably the Middle Bronze Age.