Remains of a soft limestone quarry (max. depth 2 m) were exposed. The rock-cutting was done in quarrying steps that descend east, north and west toward the center of the area (3–6 steps) where a large quarried rock surface (length 8 m, width 5 m) was completely depleted (Figs. 4, 5). The quarrying marks were clearly visible on the side of the bedrock in the west, as well as in several shallow rock-cut channels (length 0.2m, width 0.10–0.15 m). The marks indicate that the quarrying was done using a broad pointed instrument and diagonal blows at length of c. 0.3 m.
On some of the steps and on the bottom surface, grooves that served as stone separation channels were noted (Fig. 6); these channels facilitate reconstructing the size of some of the stones (e.g., length 0.7 m, width 0.45 m, height 0.3 m). The deep part of the quarry was filled with soil and rock-cutting debris overlain with additional soil fill. Several potsherds from the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods were found in the fill.
The excavated area is a small part of a large quarrying complex in Nahal Zofim that is dated to the Early Roman period. The complex included burial caves, among which the dominant one is the Umm el-‘Amid cave, northeast of the excavation (Survey of Jerusalem, the Northeastern Sector: 60*, Site 162). The damaged cavities south of the excavation and the dominant burial cave upstream indicate that the region was used for both quarrying building stones and burial caves. The quarry produced hundreds of kilograms of building stones in a variety of sizes and it probably went out of use in the Roman period. Quarrying was resumed in the region for a short time in the twentieth century CE.