Two squares were opened (Fig. 1), and two strata were exposed, separated by a layer of fill and accumulations. The two strata dated to the Late Chalcolithic period. The analysis of the flint repertoire did not yield any dated finds that could accurately distinguish between the two strata.
Stratum 2. Two walls (W113, W121) and a stone pavement (L122; Figs. 2, 3) were exposed. Wall 113 (length 1. 5 m, width 0.7 m) was built of two rows of large fieldstones (0.20×0.25×0.30 m) and aligned north–south. The wall was well-constructed and founded directly on the bedrock. It was preserved a single course high (0.2 m). The northern part of the wall extended into the northern section of the square and its southern part was cut off. The western side of the wall was not excavated. The southern end of W113 was adjoined from the west by Wall 121, which was built of one row of large fieldstones (0.15×0.17×0.25 – 0.15×0.30×0.35 m) and oriented east–west; together with W113 it enclosed a triangular area that was not excavated. Wall 121 consisted of a single course of stones and was built on top of a thin layer of soil that became increasingly thicker toward the west, in the direction of the sloping bedrock. A layer of fill (thickness 0.2 m) overlying the smoothed bedrock (Figs. 2: Section 2-2, 4) was excavated east and south of W113.
A leveled stone pavement (L122) composed of fieldstones (0.1×0.2×0.2–0.2×0.2×0.4 m) was exposed in the southwestern corner of the square. The floor was set on top of a soil and potsherds layer, ending parallel to W121, c. 0.5 m from it. A layer of fill (L120; depth 0.3 m) was excavated down to the bedrock between the wall and the floor. Several lumps of bitumen were identified a few centimeters above the architecture in Stratum 2.
Stratum 1. Walls (W104, W107; Fig. 5), stone floors (L117, L123, L124) and a floor bedding (L115) are ascribed to this stratum.
Only the northern half of Square 1 was excavated and Wall 104 (width 1 m, height 0.5 m) was exposed in its center. The wall, aligned north–south, was built of two rows of large fieldstones (0.20×0. 25×0.30 m) with a core of small stones (0.10×0.15×0.20 m), potsherds and soil. It survived to three courses high in the west and collapsed westward; its toppled stones were found scattered throughout the area to its west. The collapse covered a stone floor (L124; Fig. 2: Section 1-1). The northeastern part of W104 was adjoined by a stone floor (L123).
A partially collapsed wall section (W107, width 0.8 m) was documented in the northern Square 2. The wall, aligned east–west, was buried beneath the stone collapse that covered it and its surroundings. The wall survived to just a single course high and was built of three rows of different size fieldstones (0.13×0.15×0.15–0.20×0.20×0.25 m). The wall was founded on a bedding of potsherds, small stones and earth (L115, depth 0.05–0.20 m), placed on Stone Pavement 117. The continuation of the wall could be seen in the section east of the excavation area (Fig. 6). It seems that Walls 104 and 107 formed a corner that is located beyond the excavation area.
A probe (1.2×2.0 m) was excavated in the southwestern part of Square 2 (depth c. 1.2 m); bedrock was not reached no finds were discovered.
Ronit Lupu
The flint repertoire consists of 554 items (Table 1), of which 308 are industrial debitage, 37 are cores and 57 are tools. In addition, 152 chunks and chips were found, pointing to activity inside the site or nearby.
Gray brecciated flint of the Mishash formation was the primary component making up the raw material used at the site. The source of the raw material was probably the bedrock outcrops located in the region. An unmistakable layer of this formation is visible today in a section of the road that borders the site on the east. Other kinds of raw material were used at the site, although less frequently.
The cores are small or medium sized and most have a single striking platform. The small cores are fairly depleted. All the examined cores are flake cores and the nature of the industry is also a flake industry; c. 50% of all the items are flakes and most of the tools were also made on flakes. Evidence of burning at high temperature was noted on many of the flakes and chunks.
The tool assemblage, like the entire repertoire, is fairly small and consists of tools that are practically all ad hoc; c. 9% of the tools are made on blades. The highest frequency is of retouched items (42%) followed by awls, notches and denticulates (11%–12%). In addition, scrapers (9%) were found, including a peripheral scraper and a steep scraper, as well as burins (7%) and drills (4%). There is a small representation of truncations, side-scrapers and bifacials (each c. 2%). One blade fragment might represent a Canaanean blade. It is not possible to pinpoint a deliberate choice of raw material for a specific kind of tool. The assemblage is atypical and does not represent a ‘fossil directeur’ that can be used to date it.
The discovery of chips and chunks in the assemblage is indicative of knapping activity that occurred at or near the site. Signs of burning on much of the assemblage might indicate in situ artifacts. However, the assemblage does not contain distinct characteristics that enable to ascribe it with certainty to a particular period. The assortment of tools in the assemblage, such as awls, notches and others, as well as the several blade fragments, can be ascribed to flint industries from various periods, ranging from the Neolithic period to the Early Bronze Age. 
Table 1. Frequency of artifacts in the assemblage
Debitage Frequencis:
Primary Elements
Total Debris

Numerous remains that dated to the Chalcolithic period were exposed and documented in this and nearby excavations. It seems that during this period the entire region was somewhat densely inhabited. The exposed remains consisted of burial caves and cave dwellings, installations, cupmarks and courtyards. Two strata from this period were exposed in our excavation; both are residential in nature, with no continuity between them. The ceramic assemblage dates both strata to the Chalcolithic period. An examination of the flint repertoire did not yield a more accurate dating. The floors, placed next to the walls and buried beneath collapse, show that the two layers were characterized by high-quality construction.