Previous excavations have been undertaken along the eastern part of Yehuda Ha-Yammit Street, west of Jerusalem Boulevard (HA-ESI 122), the remains of an unpaved Ottoman road and finds from the Hellenistic and Ottoman periods were discovered; and along its westernmost section, between Ha-Migdalor and Rabi Yehuda Me-Raguza Streets (HA-ESI 123), where an impressive segment of a Crusader moat as well as a burial ground from the Persian and Hellenistic periods, isolated graves from the Early Islamic period and several Ottoman wells. Excavations carried out along the ancient mound's southern perimeter (HA-ESI 121), unearthed Crusader and Ottoman fortifications and evidence of early-twentieth century renovations in the harbor. Excavations undertaken along Jerusalem Boulevard, slightly to the south of Yehuda Ha-Yammit Street (HA-ESI 122), unearthed scanty architectural remains from the Hellenistic period, the remains of a Byzantine road, fragmentary Late Ottoman walls and a street tfoundation bed from the early twentieth century. Excavations undertaken along the boulevard to the north of Yehuda Ha-Yammit Street (HA-ESI 123) unearthed Hellenistic walls, a Byzantine road, as well as walls and remains of a drainage system from the Ottoman period.
The excavation took place in three areas (A–C; Figs. 2–4) along the southern lane of the street. Area A, the easternmost, comprised 13 partial squares (1.8 x 5.0 m) that were opened between Jerusalem Boulevard and Shivtei Israel Street. Area B spanned 20 squares (5 x 5 m and 2.4 x 4.0 m) that were excavated west of Shivtei Israel Street, up to the IDF Radio Station. Area C, comprising 23 partial squares (2 x 4 m on average), was opened further west along the street. The excavation reached a depth of 2.0–3.5 m, in accordance with the planned depth of the new infrastructure, existing pipelines and safety considerations. The excavation results will be described from the earliest to the latest.
Stratum IV (third–second centuries BCE)
The only architectural remains dated to this stratum were two parallel walls (W68, W74; Fig. 5), exposed at the eastern end of Area A. The walls, located side by side but on slightly different elevations, were built along a north–south axis. The eastern wall (W74; width 0.8 m), built on a higher level, was better preserved: it had two façades built of dressed stones arranged in a headers-and-stretchers formation, with a fill of packed dirt and small stones between them. This construction technique is commonly found in Jaffa's Hellenistic domestic architecture. Remains of a similar wall were found across the street (HA-ESI 122). Only a single course of fieldstones survived from W68, representing its inner core. As the two walls represent two different building phases, the missing façade stones of W68 may have been removed for secondary use in W74.
A Ptolemaic coin from the third century BCE (IAA 138886) and a coin of Antiochus IV from the mint of ‘Akko-Ptolemais (173/2–168 BCE; IAA 138885) were found in debris and in a soil accumulation associated with the walls. Related pottery included red and black slipped bowls (Fig. 6:1, 2) and storage jars (Fig. 6:3, 4). Three stamped Rhodian amphora handles were found in mixed Ottoman or surface loci in various parts of the street. They date from the third to the second centuries BCE (Table 1; Fig. 7).
Table 1. Stamped Rhodian Amphora Handles (data: G. Finkielsztejn)
Registration No.
Date (BCE)
A5829. Surface.2129
Fabricant: Onasimos. The meaning of the retrograde beta is unknown
C. the second third of the third century
A5634. 205.1036
Handle with curved profile; most of the stamp has been broken off
Mid-third(?) century
A5634. 94.621
Fabricant: Glaukias, who is associated with the eponym Kallikrates the 3rd according to an amphora from Tel Iztabba (ESI 11:51).
Third quarter of the second century
Stratum III (first–second centuries CE)
A solid southwestern corner of a large building (W117; Square C8; Figs. 8–10) was found at the western end of Area C. The solid corner was built of dressed kurkar stones (0.2–0.3 x 0.3–0.5 m). Debris containing mostly fieldstones (average size: 0.10 x 0.15 m), which were exposed in the immediate vicinity, may be related to the building. No associated floors were found, but pottery collected from the abutting fill dated to the Roman period, mostly to the second century CE. The assemblage included cooking pots (Fig. 11:1), bag-shaped jars (Fig. 11:2), an amphora (Fig. 11:3), a jug (Fig. 11:4), and a discus-shaped oil lamp (Fig. 11:5).The fill also contained fragments of glass vessels and a coin dated to the reign of Tiberius (17/18–24/25 CE; IAA 138887). The coin was minted in Jerusalem, possibly by Valerius Gratus.
Evidence of another wall of the same period was found in Square C5: consisting of a robber's trench that ran along a northwest–southeast axis (L114; Figs. 8, 12), with scattered stones within. This dismantled wall may be associated with the building represented by the surviving corner. The neck of a flask of a type common in the late sixth and seventh centuries CE (Fig. 11:8) was found inside the robber's trench. Shards of red-slipped Late Roman C bowls (Fig. 11:6, 7)from approximately the same time period were found near the structure's corner and the robber’s trench. These items offer a possible date for the dismantling of the building.
Stratum II (fifth–thirteenth centuries CE)
A layer of compact dark clay soil with mixed pottery was discovered over the sterile soil. The ceramic assemblage reflects the long history of Jaffa's agricultural hinterlans. Most of the pottery comprised fragments of fluted storage jars common in the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods; as no rims were recovered, no precise dating is possible. The assemblage also contained a small number of buff-ware jugs (Fig. 13:3), and a minute quantity of medieval types, among them a Cypriot Monochrome Sgraffito bowl (Fig. 13:1) and an Italian Apulian Proto-Maiolica bowl (Fig. 13:2), both dating to the thirteenth century CE. Several glass fragments from the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods were also found in this layer. Fragments of grinders, bowls, mortars, whetstones and spindle whorls(Fig. 14), most of which were from this layer, are also associated with Jaffa's contemporaneous agricultural and industrial hinterland. The artifacts were made of granite, basalt, hard limestone, and soapstone. The layer also contained an An inscribed ring bezel dated to the Early Islamic period (see below).
Stratum I (nineteenth and early twentieth centuries CE)
The excavations indicate that the modern street was first paved during the extensive expansion of city in the early twentieth century, and has since undergone several alterations.
Along most of its route – throughout Area A (L52; Fig. 15), in the eastern part of Area B, in several locations in Area C, as well as in  the excavation across the street (HA-ESI 122) – the street was an unpaved dirt road, set on the compact clay soil (Stratum II). It comprises hard soil mixed with stones and crushed lime, laid over a foundation bed (thickness c. 0.25 m) of stones. A large number of rectangular hollow bricks, in some cases still covered with plaster and remnants of paint, was found inserted in the foundation bed under the dirt road in Area C, probably as a consolidating agent. Although such bricks were widely used during the early part of the twentieth century, they are also found in the walls of the Greek Market near the Clock Tower Square, which dates to the 1890s. Although no architectural remains were found along the road, dense stone accumulations found on the road near the junction of Yehuda Ha-Yammit and Shivtei Israel (L24; Fig. 16) and debris found in Area C (L318) may indicate the presence of related structures.
A perfectly preserved stone-paved segment of the road was exposed in ten of the twelve westernmost squares of Area B (L200; length 40 m, width 2.4 m; Figs. 17, 18). The paving consisted of tightly arranged fieldstones and pebbles (0.10 x 0.15 m at the most; Fig. 19), and was demarcated by a straight line of stones. The foundation bed was laid over the clay layer (Stratum II; L228). It consisted of coarsely crushed lime and clay materials (L227; thickness 0.40–0.45 m), with finely crushed lime mixed with clay above it, which leveled and consolidated the road's surface. Paved streets of similar date were discovered in the northern part of historical Jaffa along Ha-Zorfim Street (HA-ESI 122) and Roslan Street (HA-ESI 124).
Despite the obvious differences between the paved and unpaved segments, their matching level and direction, as well as the finds above them and in their foundation beds, indicate construction within the same timeframe. The reason for the difference in construction technique could not be inferred from the excavation results.
The Late Ottoman road was probably repaired during the early years of the British Mandate. This is attested to by a large, curved piece of iron, apparently dating to the early half of the twentieth century, which was found under the easternmost exposed segment of the paved road. Two fragments of glass bottles from the foundation bed of the dirt segment of the road in the western part of Area C also date to the Mandate years; they serve as further evidence of repair work during that period. The stamped manufacturing date on one was 1924. The inscription on the second identifies it as part of a Tnuva kefir bottle, which postdate 1926, when the dairy was founded. Other glass sherds belong to a green bottle marked "Higham C.B. Co", and to a small vial, probably for perfume, bearing the words "Reiss" and "Paris". All other artifacts, including ceramic and glass sherds, from secure loci were either squarely Late Ottoman or types that began their appearance during that period. These loci also included three coins dated to the final decades of the Ottoman period, one of which is a two-piaster coin from 1917.
A segment of a north–south irrigation channel (L329; length 2.9 m, total width 0.8 m, inner breadth 0.45 m; Figs. 20, 21) was exposed near the eastern end of Area C, to the north of the historical route. The channel was built of field stones (average size 0.15 x 0.20 m) and coated with gray hydraulic plaster. It was cut at its southern end by a modern sewage pipe. Most of the pottery from the fill dated to the Late Ottoman period. The channel closely resembles channels discovered in various other sites from that period in Jaffa (HA-ESI 118; HA-ESI 120; HA-ESI 121; HA-ESI 121). The most recently discovered channels appeared in the intersection of Yehuda Ha-Yammit and Aboutboul Streets (Permit no. A-6610), and in the uppermost part of Me-Raguza Street (Permit no. A-6482) and near the junction with Yefet Street. These installations were part of the extensive agricultural complex that developed on the outskirts of the city during the Late Ottoman period.
A pit grave of undetermined date was unearthed in the clay layer (Stratum II; Sq. C7; L119). The grave's east-west orientation is congruent with Muslim burial customs. Isolated Muslim pit graves are common in the grounds surrounding Jaffa. 
Pottery from clean loci dated to Late Ottoman Jaffa included coarse ware bowls (Fig. 22:1); imported glazed wares (22:2); large Gaza Ware jars (Fig. 22:3); Gaza Ware jugs (Fig. 22:4, 5); narguile fragments (Fig. 22:6); tobacco pipes of the nineteenth and early twentieth century varieties (Fig. 22:7); and French roof tiles, mostly from the Roux Brothers factory near Marseilles (Fig. 22:8).
Among the imported wares were imitation porcelain bowls, some of which are of clearly identifiable styles, such as the British Willow Pattern. Six such fragments bore producer stamps, four of which were at least partially legible. Three came from a French factory at Sarreguemines (Fig. 23:a), a region in Lorraine renowned for its porcelain industry. The mark was used during the later decades of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century. The fourth originated in Maastricht, Holland. Although Maastricht was a center of ceramic production since 1836, the English inscription, "Made in Holland," precludes a date prior to the twentieth century. The only true porcelain item found in the excavation was a female statuette (Fig. 24).
Several fragments of glass bracelets (Fig. 25), probably of the Hebron industry, were also found in this stratum. Such types were popular throughout the western lands of the Near East, and are frequently found in Jaffa. Also of Late Ottoman origins were two complete miniature glass vials (height 4 cm, width 2 cm; Fig. 26), with a prolonged neck and a flat body. Arab women wore such vessels as necklaces, filled with sacred liquids of perfume. 
Small finds dating to the Late Ottoman period were also found in mixed stratigraphic contexts, dominated by diagnostic Ottoman pottery. These include a bone-made comb, a large iron key (length 9 cm) and half a bracelet (diameter 6 cm; Fig. 27) made of copper or bronze, and adorned with impressed concentric circles. Other noteworthy finds:
1. A bullet cartridge used in 7.92 mm-caliber German Mauser rifles from the early twentieth century. The details on its base (S67/S/5/17) indicate that its serial number is 67, and that it was produced in May of 1917 in the Spandau factory. Numerous such cartridges were found in the Qishle compound, along with a cache of dozens of rifles dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (HA-ESI 121: Fig. 11).
2. A British-uniform brass button. Although mostly worn out, one can discern that it originally depicted the Hanoverian coat-of-arms  the dynasty to which the British royal family is affiliated. Similar buttons were found at the Qishle compound (HA-ESI 121) and in the excavations along Ha-Zorfim and Rabi Yehuda Me-Raguza Streets (HA-ESI 122; Permit No. A-6482) in Jaffa.
3. Three iron horseshoes. Such horseshoes were common in Jaffa during the Late Ottoman period and British Mandate years. Numerous horseshoes were found at the Qishle, and several others have been discovered along the routes of historical streets adjacent to Yehuda Ha-Yammit.
4. An Austrian, blue-coated iron bowl was found in fragmentary condition. The word "Austria" appears in a black stamp on the base of the bowl, under a double-headed eagle. Such an eagle – a common European symbol since Byzantine times – was part of the Austrian coat-of-arms during the 1930s.
An Arabic-Inscribed Bronze Ring
Nitzan Amitai-Preiss
A cracked, round ring bezel made of bronze, bearing a design and an inscription on its upper surface (Fig. 28), was unearthed in Stratum II. A line with diagonal strokes runs along the bezel's margins and frames it. At two opposing sides of the frame, at the top and at the bottom of the bezel, are crescent-like half circles, each encompassing a simple star, known as Khatim Sulyman, "Salomon's seal". Two additional motifs appear on the bezel but could not be identified with certainty. One, badly damaged by the crack, is possibly a floral or vegetal design. The other is an elongated, irregular cloud-shaped design that runs along the left-hand margin.
The inscription is divided into two. To the right of the crack are the words Hasbi ﺤسبي and most probably Allah الله with two separate letters: alif and ha. The two words, inscribed in a head-to-tail position, make up the well-known phrase "Allāh is sufficient for me". To the left of the crack, between the floral motif and the cloud-shaped design, is a row of three identical marks: either the letter waw or the digit 9 inscribed in retrograde (ووو).
The earliest dated version of the expression "Allāh is sufficient for me" (Musab Hasbuhu Allāh; Allāh is sufficient for him) was found on an Arab-Sasanian coin of Mus‘ab ibn al-Zubayr, who rebelled against the Khalif ‘Abd al-Malik (685–705 CE). The coin was minted in Basra between 66 and 71 or 72 AH (685/6–690 or 692 CE; Hoyland R.G. 1997. Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam. Princeton. P. 694, No. 22).
The inscription Hasbi Allah, along with the repetitive rhythm of the waw or the digit 9 and the separation of the letters presumably meaning Allah, all indicate that the ring served as an amulet. The combination of the inscription Hasbi Allah and a star is found on several amuletic rings dated between the end of the seventh century and the first two decades of the eighth century CE, although in these, the star is incised on the bottom, hidden surface of the bezel (Amitai-Preiss N. and Wolfe L. 2011. Amuletic Bronze Rings from the Arab-Byzantine Period. Israel Numismatic Research 6:175–186). The combination of the digit 9 and stars first appears in a discussion of amulets in a book by Al-Būnī (d. 622 AH; 1225/6 CE; Al-Būnī Ahmad B. ‘Ali. Shams al-Ma‘arif al-Kubra wa-Latāif al-Awārif. Cairo 2007). Although the book was written centuries after the probable date of the ring, the author discusses amulets from earlier periods.
As the ring from Jaffa was found in a layer containing mixed finds from the fifth through the thirteenth centuries, it cannot be dated by its associated stratigraphic position. However, a comparative-typological analysis dates it to the Early Islamic period. Two other Early Islamic bronze rings bearing an Arabic inscription were found in Israel: a seventh-century ring from Hafez Hayyim (HA-ESI 123) and a seal ring from Banias with four lines of an undeciphered Kufic script (IAA Reports 38:175–176, No. 38), with the inscription Bism Allah (In the name of Allah
Flint Artifacts
Polina Spivak
Ten lithic artifacts were uncovered: two primary flakes, three secondary flakes and two chunks, all non-diagnostic, and three tools. The tools, identified as flintlocks, share similar techno-typological characteristics: they are made of fine-grained grey flint (they have brown or light brown patina), are rectangular in shape (23–35 x 31–43 mm), have a trapezoid cross-section (thickness 4–7 mm), and were fashioned by an abrupt retouch and bifacial flaking (Fig. 29). It is known that flint pieces were used during the Ottoman period as flintlocks in rifles and pistols (Garigen L.L. 1991. Description and Analysis of Flintlock Pistols Recovered From a Seventeen-Century Shipwreck on Pedro Bank, Jamaica. College Station, Texas; Saidel B.A. 2000. Matchlocks, Flintlocks, and Saltpetre: The Chronological Implications for the Use of Matchlock Muskets among Ottoman-Period Bedouin in the Southern Levant. Internatioal Journal of Historical Archaeology 4/3:191–216). Furthermore, identical rectangular flint tools were recently used successfully as flintlocks in the firing mechanism of rifles and pistols. Similar “rectangular flints” were found in nearby Ottoman sites in Jaffa, such as the Qishle compound (HA-ESI 121) and Ha-Zorfim Street (HA-ESI 122).
Inbar Ktalav
Fifteen shells were found in the excavation. They originate in two maritime environments: the Mediterranean and the Pacific Ocean. The Mediterranean assemblage, probably collected from the seashore, is dominated by Bolinus brandaris (five specimens; Fig. 30:a). The other Mediterranean species are Erosaria spurca, Tonna galea, Hexaplex trunculus, Stramonita haemastoma and Glycymeris insubrica – one specimen each, except for Stramonita haemastoma, with two specimens. One of the latter was the only Mediterranean mollusk bearing manipulation marks: an artificial perforation, suggesting that the item was uses for personal adornment.
Four Pinctada Margaritifera shells originate in the Pacific Ocean. During the nineteenth century, this bivalve was imported to Europe, mostly to Vienna, for the button industry. Production waste reached Jaffa, presumably en route to Jerusalem and Bethlehem, where they were used either for making buttons or for decorating souvenirs. Two of the items are production waste, with clear disc-extraction marks (Fig. 30:b). The other two are defective buttons.
The urban boundaries of Jaffa never reached as far as the eastern part of Yehuda Ha-Yammit Street. The Hellenistic and Roman architectural remains might have belonged to farms that stood at some distance from the city; the ceramic variance, including imported tableware, supports this suggestion. As no architectural remains that date between the Byzantine and the Late Ottoman periods were found, it seems probable that the excavation areas were used for open-field agricultural activity during these periods. The Jaffa municipality was established in the early 1870s. Among its aims was the improvement of the street network (Kark R. 1990. Jaffa – City in Evolution, 1799–1917. Jerusalem. P. 205). The historical streets were first laid than, and they underwent renovations during the British Mandate yeas.