Square I. A round installation (L403; diam. 0.65 m) covered with soot was discovered in the middle of the square and along its northern side. The installation was poorly preserved and its function could not be ascertained. Pottery vessels found in the habitation level (L402) included bowls (Fig. 4:4, 5, 8), a cooking pot (Fig. 5:6), jars (Fig. 5:11, 13) and a jug (Fig. 5: 19), dating to Middle Bronze IIA; a carinated bowl from the Late Bronze Age (Fig. 2:3), as well as flint items (below).
Square J. An installation (?; L304) was discovered in the northwestern corner of the square; most of it was situated beyond the excavation limits. This installation was also poorly preserved and its purpose could not be determined. Pottery found in the habitation levels (L301, L303) included a bowl (Fig. 2:1) from the Early Bronze Age; bowls (Fig. 4:1–3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12), carinated bowls (Fig. 4:13–19), a krater (Fig. 5:2), cooking pots (Fig. 5:7, 9), jars (Fig. 5:10, 14, 15) and a jug (Fig. 5:18) from Middle Bronze IIA; a bowl (Fig. 2:4) and krater (Fig. 2:5) from Iron Age II; a cup (Fig. 2:6), jars (Fig. 2:8–10), jug (Fig. 2:11) and lamp (Fig. 3: 1) from the Early Roman period; a cooking pot (Fig. 3:2) and jar (Fig. 3:3) from the Byzantine period, in addition to flint items (below).
Square K. A tabun (L104; diam. 1.4 m, preserved height of the side 0.5 m) was discovered along the southwestern side of the square; the sides of the installation were made of clay and the floor was clayey hamra. Half of the tabun was situated beyond the excavation limits. Pottery found in the habitation levels (L100, L103 and L105) included a bowl (Fig. 4:10), handmade cooking pots (Fig. 5:3–5), a wheel-made cooking pot (Fig. 5:8) and jars (Fig. 5:12, 16) dating to Middle Bronze IIA; and a jar (Fig. 2:7) and stopper (Fig. 3:4) from the Early Roman period, and flint items (below).
Square L. A kiln (Fig. 6) was discovered in the northwestern corner of the square. Its firebox (L202; inner diam. 0.6 m, outer diam. 1.5 m, preserved height of the side c. 0.3 m) was all that survived of the installation. Pottery found in the vicinity of the kiln included a bowl (Fig. 2:2) from the Early Bronze Age and a cooking pot (Fig. 5:1) and jar (Fig. 5:17) dating to Middle Bronze IIA. A basalt mortar (Fig. 3:5) and flint (below) were found next to the kiln’s northwestern corner.
A trial excavation (no permit number was issued) was conducted by the late Y. Lotan in 1989 prior to installing an electric pole, c. 10 m from the current excavation. One small square was excavated (1 × 1 m) and no architectural remains were exposed; however, two Middle Bronze IIA jars (Fig. 7: 1, 2) were found in situ on a floor level that was previously detected during an antiquities inspection.
Flint Implements
Polina Spivak
The flint assemblage from the excavation includes forty-three items made of fine quality, gray homogenous flint. Most of the items are broken and covered with brown patina. Nevertheless, with the exception of one core, all the items are sharp and fresh. The assemblage is characterized by a high percentage of flakes (Table 1) and chunks.
Table 1. The assemblage components
Primary flakes
It is not possible to date the assemblage based on the characteristics of the finds.
A small industrial site from the end of Middle Bronze IIA was exposed in the excavation; it included a tabun, an industrial pottery kiln and two other installations (?) that have burnt marks on them. The site was probably part of the industrial/agricultural hinterland of the city Aphek (in the Sharon), which at that time was an urban center of the central coastal plain. Most of the recovered pottery vessels were dated to Middle Bronze IIA; several pottery vessels from earlier (Fig. 2) and later periods (Figs. 2, 3) were also found.