Area F (Fig. 2)
Building 1. Two walls (W80, W87; Fig. 3), built of large roughly hewn stones (0.3–0.5×0.5–0.7×0.8–0.9 m), were exposed; these were founded on bedrock that was leveled and prepared for use as a floor. Wall 80 (length 18.3 m, width 0.7 m) was aligned northeast-southwest, while Wall 87 adjoined it. At the point where these two walls met, W87 was built of two rows of stone (width 1.6 m; Fig. 4) with a core of different size fieldstones. A short wall (W88) was exposed further along the line of W80 to the southwest. Walls 80 and 88 were separated by an opening (width 1 m). The meager amount of ceramic finds included worn fragments from the Roman period.
Building 2. A rectangular structure (13×16 m; Fig. 5) consisting of a courtyard and five small rooms was exposed. The entrance to the building was in all likelihood from the northern side and led to a central courtyard, bounded by walls on the east, west and south (W81, W89, W94). The walls were built of large roughly hewn stones (0.3–0.4×0.6–0.7×0.9 m) in dry-construction. Wall 81 (length 6 m) was founded on the bedrock; Wall 94, also founded on the bedrock, was preserved a single course high (0.6 m). Wall 89 (width 2.4 m) consisted of two rows of stones and a core of small stones and was founded on bedrock that was leveled and prepared for use as a floor. Wall 89 was abutted from the west by a floor (L819; Fig. 6) built of smoothed flagstones. Wall 81 was abutted from the east (L815) and west (L813; Fig. 7) by floors that were partly built of smoothed flagstones and partly consisted of leveled bedrock. Floor 813 connected W81 to W94. An opening (width 0.5 m) that separated Walls 89 and 94 led to the rooms. Wall 94 was adjoined from the south by a wall (W96; exposed length 8 m, width 1 m) built of large roughly hewn stones in dry-construction; Wall 96 and its presumed continuation southward was abutted from the west by three walls (W95, W98, W99) that were built of roughly hewn stones and together with it formed three small rooms (L808, L820, L826). The floor of Room 820 (2.0×2.5 m) was bedrock that had been leveled and prepared for such use. The ceramic finds from this room were extremely meager and included worn fragments of pottery vessels from the Roman period. Potsherds from this period were also found in Room 808.
A room (L814) delimited by walls (W91–W93, W97) on all four of its sides was located west of Room 808. The entrance to the room was from the northern side via an opening (width 2 m) that separated Walls 92 and 97. The floor of the room (L816) was bedrock that had been leveled and prepared for use as a floor. Wall 97 was abutted from the west by another floor (L817) that was partly built of smoothed flagstones and partly consisted of bedrock that had been leveled and prepared for such use. The ceramic finds from this room were very scant and included body fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Roman period.
It seems that the building was used as part of a farm in the Roman period.
Watchman’s Hut. A watchman’s hut with a square exterior (10×10 m; Fig. 8) and an elliptical interior (4×5 m) was documented in the northwestern corner of the area. The walls of the structure (W83–W86; width 2.5 m, preserved height 1.2 m) were founded on the bedrock and built in dry construction of two rows of large roughly hewn stones (0.5×0.5×1.0 m) and a core of small stones. The entrance to the hut was from the southern side through an opening (width 1.2 m) that separated Walls 83 and 84. The floor of the structure (L809; Fig. 9) was partly built of smoothed flagstones and partly consisted of leveled bedrock.
Building 3. A wall (W107; length 10 m, width 2.5 m; Fig. 10) aligned northwest-southeast was revealed; it was built on the bedrock in dry-construction of two rows of large roughly hewn stones (0.3×0.5×0.9 m) and a core of small stones. Another wall (W108), built of small fieldstones and set on the bedrock, was exposed 0.6 m east of W107. It seems that Walls 107 and 108 were used together and the space between them served as a passageway. Remains of a wall (W110; Fig. 11), generally oriented east–west, were uncovered in the south of the area. The wall’s construction was similar to that of W107, but it was founded on bedrock that had been leveled and prepared for use as a floor. Walls 107 and 110 were apparently used simultaneously and were part of a built compound. Two other walls (W111, W113), built of fieldstones and set on the bedrock, were exposed north of W110. Wall 113 adjoined W110, and W111 abutted W113 from the west. It seems that Walls 110, 111 and 113 delimited a space (L912) that was probably used for agricultural purposes. A wall (W112) built similar to W107 abutted W111 from the north. Together, Walls 111 and 112 formed a small room (L901), whose purpose was not ascertained.
Field Tower. A rectangular field tower (4.5×5.0 m, preserved height 1.3 m; Fig. 12) was exposed; it was built on the bedrock in dry construction of roughly hewn stones (0.2×0.3×0.6 m) and a core of small stones. Several worn fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Roman period were found in a probe excavated in the tower down to the bedrock level (L910). A wall (W100) built of fieldstones (0.20×0.30×0.35 m) and set on the bedrock was probably used as a farming terrace, adjacent to the southern side of the tower. Two parallel walls (W103, W104), built of medium-sized fieldstones and founded on the bedrock, abutted the tower from the north. The walls formed a courtyard (L904) that was probably used in conjunction with the field tower.
Buildings similar to those exposed in the excavation were discovered at the nearby site of El-Ahwat and in other excavations in the region (‘Atiqot 55:83–107). It is difficult to date the remains, although the few worn potsherds recovered from the excavation dated to the Roman period. Based on the nature of the complex, it seems that the site was part of the agricultural hinterland of a larger settlement that was located in the vicinity during the Roman period.