The kiln has a generally rounded plan, including a central firing chamber surrounded by support walls and a built conduit allowing for air circulation.
The rounded central chamber (diam. 5 m, depth 2.5 m) was surrounded by a wall (W1; Fig. 3), which was built of medium-sized fieldstones and rectangular-shaped building stones. The large nicely cut stones were probably reused building stones that originated from the ancient architectural remains nearby. Of the kiln's central firing chamber, only the northern section was excavated. Layers of burnt limestone fieldstones, crushed lime, and charcoal were uncovered. An additional curving wall (W4) was built of particularly small stones upon the floor of the chamber, along the inner face of W1. Wall 4 was probably not built for constructional purposes but is rather the remains of stones loaded into the kiln and intended for firing. Surrounding the outer periphery of the kiln (W1), another parallel circular wall (W2), built of large fieldstones, was exposed upon the surface. These walls would have functioned together as a support for the kiln’s assumed domed superstructure.
To the northeast of the kiln's central chamber, another wall (W3) was found. A limited probe dug to the north of the wall exposed its outer face. The wall was preserved three stone courses high and it seems to have added extra support against the steep slope of the area’s topography.
The conduit, consisting of two parallel walls (W5, W6; Fig. 4), was found in the northern area of the kiln. The walls form a narrow passageway that was not completely excavated as it was deemed unstable. The southern section of the passage, leading to the firing chamber, was covered with a series of four large rectangular slabs. At the connection of the passageway with the firing chamber, a small rectangular window was uncovered (Fig. 5). The window was found completely filled with white lime and charcoal. The window would have allowed air to circulate within the chamber during the limekiln’s operation.
The excavated limekiln resembles other limekilns previously excavated in ‘Emek Arazim, Bet Nekofa, and Ramat Bet Shemesh. Nearly all the kilns have the same general plan and make use of similar building methods. The kilns at Ramat Bet Shemesh (HA-ESI 123, HA-ESI 124, HA-ESI 124, HA-ESI 124)
were all dated to the Ottoman period. Based on the overwhelming similarities between the kilns, the Khirbat Rafeidiya kiln should also be dated to this period. During the excavation, only a few worn potsherds were collected. These dated to the Byzantine period and are irrelevant in dating the kiln as they were found in unsound contexts. Similarly, the surface pottery in the area around the kiln and nearby ruins is also predominantly from the Byzantine period. The building of the kiln most definitely postdated the abandonment of the nearby settlement, as the smoke and pollution that are a byproduct of the kiln’s activity, would deem the area inhabitable. Furthermore, large building stones taken from the site were used in the construction of the kiln and additional stones might have even been used as raw material in the kiln to become lime.