The Ottoman Period. The complex, which was constructed at this time, consisted of a well with a short channel conveying water from it to two adjacent pools, one large and the other small. The larger pool provided water to a trough that was built near the pools slightly to the southwest, and the smaller pool supplied water to a sabil which was integrated in the outer western wall of the small pool (Fig. 3). Most of the complex was constructed of dressed kurkar stones (average dimensions 0.30 × 0.45 m); the outer elements of the sabil and trough were built of white limestones, which were plundered, leaving only a few stones in situ. Chunks of the molten ceramics remains (0.1-0.2 m in length) which accumulate at the bottom of pottery kilns were incorporated in the construction of some of the walls.
The well (diam. 2.6 m; current depth 29 m) was lined with kurkar stones. All that remained of the channel that carried water from the well to the pools was its base (length 8 m, width 0.65 m), which was preserved to a maximum height of two courses. The western part of the channel, near the point where it joined the well, was destroyed, probably by the renovations during the British Mandate period. All that survived of it were collapsed stones. The large pool was square (inner dimensions 5.5 × 6.0 m); its walls were thick (c. 1 m) and fully coated with hydraulic plaster. The walls were preserved to their full height, nine courses on the outer face (1.5–1.7 m) and eight courses on the inner face. The resulting step (width c. 0.2 m) along the inside perimeter of the pool apparently supported a now missing roof. The lower courses in the northwestern part of the pool are now buried in silt. Water flowed to the pool from the main channel, through a small conduit that passed along the top of its western wall. A large square stone was incorporated in the bottom of the pool at the point where the water poured into it, to prevent damage to the plaster floor. The pool had three openings, into which clay pipes were integrated: one, in the middle of the southern wall at the level of the bottom, fed the trough; the second in the northwestern corner, c. 5 cm above the bottom, either drained the pool, or supplied another trough, which was not preserved; and the third, in the northeastern corner, 0.9 m above the bottom, seemingly drained excess water. The sabil pool (1.35 × 1.85 m, width of walls 0.65 m) was supplied with water by a small channel that branched from the main channel. The pool had a vaulted roof, which began about one meter above ground; most of the vault was not preserved. There are three openings in the western wall of the sabil pool. A terra cotta pipe was preserved in the central one (Fig. 4). The trough (width 0.85 m) was built along the southern wall of both pools (length 9 m) and surrounded the corner to of the small pool, along its western wall(length c. 2 m, Fig. 5).
British Mandate. Concrete was used extensively in the renovations of the British Mandate period. A concrete belt (height 0.45 m, width 0.4 m) was poured along the top of the stone mouth of the well, and raised it. Several concrete installations, which were apparently related to a motorized pump that replaced the waterwheel, were constructed next to the well. These installations were only partially preserved. Several changes were made to the large pool: the floor was covered with mortar mixed with small stones, which raised it by c. 0.2 m; the walls were reinforced with concrete in several places; another course was added, built of stones of various sizes; and the pool was re-plastered. The height of the trough was increased, but it was now only along the southern wall of the two pools; a new drainage hole was opened in its western end. This opening clearly the cut through the plaster of the Ottoman-period trough, which was constructed around the sabil pool. The trough was also re-plastered.
Waterwheels, also known by their Egyptian name saqiye, were used in Israel and the neighboring countries from the Roman period and until the invention of motorized pumps in the Late Ottoman period; sometimes the waterwheel itself was not preserved, but the typical pottery vessels which were tied to it were discovered (Ayalon 2000; Milo 2001). A waterwheel similar to the one documented in Shoqeda forest was found at Horbat Mador on the banks of Nahal Gerar, c. 3 km to the southwest (Paran 2008). The Horbat Mador well was also built in the Ottoman period and renovated during the British Mandate, when the waterwheel was replaced by a motorized pump.