Quarries. Remains of two building-stones quarries (1, 2) were discovered. In Quarry 1 (excavated area: c. 50 sq m; Fig. 4) remains of two quarrying steps and of severance channels (stone dimensions 0.5–0.8 × 0.6–1.7 m, height 0.20–0.35 m) were identified. In Quarry 2 (excavated area: c. 10 sq m; Fig. 5) remains of a quarrying step (height 0.4 m) were identified and traces of straight rock-cuttings and severance channels (average width 0.1 m) were visible. Above the quarries was a fill of soil, stones and masonry debris that was apparently deposited there for the construction of the winepress and the building. Mixed pottery from the Roman and Byzantine periods was discovered in the fill.
Room. Remains of a room consisting of two walls (W104, W106) were discovered; the rest of the room continued beyond the boundaries of the excavation. The walls were built of medium–large nari ashlars, founded on a leveled rock surface and preserved to a height of one course (0.3 m). The floor of the room was not preserved. The room was sealed by a fill of gray soil (L112) that contained mixed pottery dating to the Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods, as well as the modern era.
Winepress. Elements of a complex winepress were exposed. It had a main treading floor, with remains of four secondary treading floors (1–4; Figs. 6, 7) arranged around it, and a secondary collecting vat installed in front of each of them. The main treading floor was probably rectangular (L135; length c. 6.2 m) and its eastern part was situated outside the excavation area. On three sides the work surface was bounded by walls (W132, W133, W136) that were built of small fieldstones bonded with gray mortar. The wall-surfaces that faced the main treading floor were plastered with hydraulic plaster, and their outer faces was integrated into the foundations of the secondary treading floors. The main treading floor was paved with a white mosaic (tesserae size 2 × 2 cm; Fig. 8) arranged in diagonal rows, and surrounded by a decorative black and white frame (width c. 0.1 m) aligned parallel with the edges of the floor. The mosaic was constructed on a bedding of small fieldstones (L139). The remains of a base, which was used to secure the wooden screw of a press (L140), were clearly visible in the center of the mosaic floor. The screw itself was not preserved. The secondary treading floors were built c. 0.7 m higher than the main floor. A secondary collecting vat was installed in front of each treading floor, and below it. Treading Floors 1 and 2 were preserved almost in their entirety, whereas all that remained of Floors 3 and 4 were their collecting vats (L127, L141). Treading Floors 1 and 2 were rectangular and separated by a partition (W123), of which only the foundations survived. The walls of the treading floors (W124–W126) were built of nari ashlars and survived to a height of one course (0.3 m). The outer face of the walls was coated with hydraulic plaster, and the inner face was not preserved. The walls were founded on the remains of the quarry and on the layer of fill that sealed it. The surfaces of the treading floors were not preserved. Presumably they were paved with white mosaic, similar to the main treading floor. The foundations of the treading floors (L121, L122), were made of small fieldstones bonded with cement and covered with a layer of white cement, and were constructed directly on top of the quarry remains. Several body sherds of Byzantine-period pottery were found inside the foundations. Two semi-circular collecting vats (L116, L128; diam. 1.1 m, max. preserved height 0.5 m; Figs. 9, 10) were installed in the eastern part of the treading floors, near W132. They were plastered with hydraulic plaster, paved with coarse white mosaic, and had shell-shaped ceilings. It seems that the must flowed from the secondary treading floors through a perforation, to the collecting vats that were installed underneath them. The floor of the vats was c. 0.5 m higher than the main treading floor. A pipe (diam. 5 cm), which drained into the main treading floor, was installed in the center of W132. Two conical installations (L129, L138; average diam. c. 0.5 m, preserved height 0.25 m), plastered and paved with a white mosaic, were discovered at the bottom of the treading floors, next to the collecting vats. The installations were apparently intended to store either a variety of ingredients that were added to the must, or ceramic jars. The winepress was sealed by a layer of accumulated dark brown soil, mixed with small fieldstones, lumps of plaster, coarse white tesserae and Byzantine-period pottery.
The Finds. The pottery from the layers of fill and accumulation included fragments from the Roman, Byzantine and Umayyad periods, including two LRS Type 3F and 10A bowls (Fig. 11:1, 2) from the late fifth century CE; bowls (Fig. 11:3, 4) from the fifth–eighth century CE; a basin (Fig. 11:6) and cooking pots (Fig. 11:7–9) from the Late Roman period; a jar (Fig. 11:10) from the Roman period; and the base of a bowl decorated with two pomegranates (Fig. 11:11) that dates to the fifth–eighth century CE. A fragment of a bowl (Fig. 11:5) that dates to the Umayyad period was found in the topsoil. Other artifacts discovered in the excavation include six glass fragments ascribed to the Late Roman and Byzantine periods and a metal sickle blade (Fig. 12) from the Byzantine period.
The excavation uncovered quarries that date to the end of the Late Roman period, and remains of a room and a winepress from the Late Byzantine period above them. The western part of the winepress was excavated; its eastern part, where the collecting vats were discovered, was situated beneath a modern road. This winepress belongs to the group of complex winepresses with a fixed pressing screw and secondary treading floors arranged around the main one. Winepresses of this group date to the sixth–seventh century CE. It seems that during the Byzantine period, the main hill of Ramat Yishay constituted part of the agricultural hinterland of the settlement, whereas by the end of the period the settlement extended onto the hill as well. Remains of a church were discovered in the past, south of the current excavation (Oshri 2000). The implication is that the winepress and the church may have been part of a monastery. The excavation revealed that the area was partly abandoned during the Early Islamic and Mamluk periods.