An irregular-shaped layer of earth and stones (width c. 1 m, thickness 1.0–1.2 m; Figs. 2, 3) was exposed c. 2.5 m below the surface, in the southern part of the square; the edge of the stone layer was observed in the northern part of the square as well (L105, L106). A two-course stone wall (W101; Fig. 4) and the layer of stones placed atop of it were revealed in trial trenches (L102, L103, L107). Pottery sherds that date to the Crusader period (thirteenth century CE) were found above the layer. Wall 101 may have been built to serve as a retaining wall.
Several Hellenistic-period sherds, including Rhodian handles and fragments of Western Sigillata bowls, were found in Trenches 102 and 103. At the bottom of the stone layer were a few sherds from the Byzantine period. Most of the ceramic finds date to the Crusader period (thirteenth century CE). These include a baking bowl (Fig. 5:1) and a cooking pot (Fig. 5:2), both of which have a thick wall and brown glaze. Such vessels belong to Group BE.CW.2; they originated in Beirut and were common in the eastern Mediterranean basin during the thirteenth century CE (Stern 2012
:42–44). Other ceramic finds included a green-and-yellow glazed bowl (Fig. 5:3) imported from Port St. Symeon in northern Syria, which is similar to those found in various other excavations in ʽAkko (Stern 2012
:57–58, NSY.GL.4), and two monochrome glazed bowls (Fig. 5:4, 5), which are part of a large repertoire of imported Cypriot vessels found in large quantities in ʽAkko and in contemporary sites throughout Israel (Stern 2012
:60-61, CY.GL.3). Remains of a sculpted stone item (Fig. 5:6) that is difficult to identify, possibly part of a depiction of a garment, was also discovered. It was impossible to determine if it dates to the Crusader period or is later. A Seleucid coin of Antiochus III that was minted in Tyre (223–187 BCE; IAA 106774) was found among the stones in W101.
The ceramic finds from the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods indicate that the city spread eastward, not far from the settlement remains (Hartal 1997
) and monastery remains (Permit No. A-5639) previously excavated. The Crusader remains uncovered in the excavation, together with the remains of the moat and the Crusader architecture (Boas and Melloni 2005
) that were revealed in earlier excavations, indicate that the settlement expanded eastward during the Crusader period.