Square A (Figs. 3, 4)
Stratum III (fourth–fifth centuries CE). The architectural remains included a wall (W110; Phase IIIb; excavated length 2.2 m, width 0.8 m, preserved height 0.18 m) and a plaster floor (L111) that abutted it from the northeast (Fig. 5). The wall’s northern section was built of large, dressed basalt stones, whereas its southern section was built of variously sized basalt, limestone and travertine fieldstones. The fieldstone construction is probably a later blockage of an opening (width 1.6 m; Phase IIIa; Fig. 6) that was set in W110.Floor 111 was laid on a layer of alluvium (L113) that contained gray soil, travertine pebbles, shells and mollusks, as well as worn pottery and abraded flint items. The alluvial layer had accumulated on a deposit of travertine pebbles that was devoid of ancient finds (L117).
Stratum II (fifth–seventh centuries CE). Two wall sections were excavated (W106, W114; Figs. 7, 8). Wall 106 (length 3.9 m, width 0.60–0.65 m, preserved height 0.38 m) was founded on Plaster Floor 111 from Stratum III (Fig. 9). It was built of two rows of fieldstones with large and medium-sized, roughly dressed limestone and basalt stones, arranged as headers and stretchers, with a core of earth and small stones; it was preserved to the height of a single course. In the south, the wall ended in a straight edge that may have been one side of an entrance. Wall Section 114 is very short (length 0.27 m). It was built of medium-sized, roughly dressed basalt stones and preserved to the height of a single course (height 0.28 m). In the north balk of the excavation square, a level of light-brown brick debris was detected (L107; length 0.4 m, c. 0.1 m thick; Fig. 10), possibly the remnants of a floor. Beneath Level 107, a clay pipe was uncovered (L115, L116, L118; Figs. 11, 12) that ran parallel to W106 on a northwesterly downward slope. The pipe was completely encased in a coating of small stones mixed with gray hydraulic plaster. The excavation removed the upper part of the pipe’s coating, except at its southeast end, to reveal seven pipe segments (segment length 0.3 m, outer diam. 0.23 m); the joins between the segments were sealed with white plaster.
Stratum I (nineteenth–twentieth centuries CE). Two perpendicular walls (W102, W103) were uncovered immediately beneath the topsoil; they extended beyond the excavation area. The walls were founded on an accumulation of earth and potsherds (L101, L105) and were built of large and medium-sized basalt stones; they were preserved two courses high. Wall 102 (excavated length 6 m, width 0.4–0.5 m; Fig. 13) was built of a row of large stones in its northern part, whereas its southern part was built of two rows of medium-sized stones. Wall 103 (excavated length 2.55 m, excavated width 0.65 m; Fig. 14) ran along the northern balk of the excavation square and therefore only part of its entire width could be excavated. The remains of a possible wall, clumsily built of medium-sized basalt stones, some of which were roughly hewn and others left unworked (L104), was uncovered in a pit (excavated depth 0.66 m) near the square’s east balk. It was unearthed beneath the level of Walls 102 and 103 and cut into the Stratum II remains. It was partially excavated and extended beyond the excavation area, and seems to have been the outer wall of a cesspit. The stratum yielded modern potsherds and construction debris. These remains belong to a late Ottoman-period building that was in use until the 1970s. Similar buildings are still in existence nearby, and they continue to be used today.
Square B (Figs. 15, 16)
Stratum III (fourth–fifth centuries CE) yielded remains of a building: three walls (W121, W122, W125) demarcating four architectural units (A–D). Wall 121 is probably the continuation of W110 from Square A. Wall 121 (excavated length 3.83 m, width 0.85–0.95 m) and W122 (excavated length 2.45 m, width 0.60–0.65 m) were built of two rows of large and medium-sized limestone and basalt stones, of which some were roughly dressed and others left unworked, and a core of small stones and earth (Fig. 17); they were preserved to a maximum height of two courses. Wall’s 121 foundation course of basalt fieldstones protruded slightly westward from the wall (Fig. 18). Wall 125 (length 3.5 m, width 0.85–0.95 m) was preserved to the height of its foundation course, which was built of large and medium-sized basalt fieldstones. In the west, the wall ended in a straight line that may have been one side of an opening connecting Units A and B. The corner created by W121 and W125 was founded on travertine rock and travertine sediment devoid of pottery (L127; see Fig. 18).
The pottery from Strata III and II dates from the Late Roman and Byzantine periods and consists mainly of bowls (Fig. 19:1–3), casseroles (Fig. 19:4–6), cooking pots (Fig. 19:7, 8) and jars (Fig. 19:9–13), as well as a jug (Fig. 19:14). A Byzantine coin (fourth–fifth centuries CE; IAA 161734) was recovered above the north part of W121 (L123).
The excavation revealed that the site was probably settled in the fourth century CE, when the city of Scythopolis was in the process of expanding. The orientation of the walls in Stratum III in both squares is similar, suggesting that they were part of a single, large building. Wall 106 and the clay pipe from Stratum II run parallel to W110 and W121 from Stratum III; Stratum III and Stratum II may therefore represent phases of alterations were made to the same structure, which was built in the fourth century CE and continued to be used until the end of the Byzantine period. The building unearthed in Stratum I was probably constructed in the late nineteenth century and continued to be used until the 1970s.