The excavation was carried out on the northwestern slopes of Mount Carmel.
Extensive excavations conducted at the site in the past unearthed the remains of a large settlement from the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods (for background and references, see Oren 2014
). The current excavation uncovered Byzantine remains consisting of a building, a dam and a limekiln (Figs. 2, 3).
Building. Two walls (W118, W128; excavated length 10 m and 5.5 m respectively; Figs. 2: Section 1–1; Fig. 4) were exposed in the western part of the excavation, built of limestone ashlars on a foundation of small stones incorporating a few ashlars; the walls form a corner. The building apparently extended northward, beyond the limits of the excavation. To the south of W128 and parallel to it was an ashlar-built wall (W131; excavated length 9 m); the two walls may have bounded a narrow alley. Wall 131 cut W144, built of small and medium-sized fieldstones.
Dam. In the east of the excavation, W109 (excavated length 6 m; Figs. 2: Section 3–3; Fig. 5) was exposed, built of partially dressed limestone blocks on a foundation of small stones; the wall was preserved a single course high. Numerous collapsed stones were found on the west side of the dam. The wall was probably a dam, built to stop waterborne sediments from being swept from Naḥal Ezov, situated east of the excavation.
Limekiln. A limekiln (L142; Figs. 2: Section 2–2; 6) was exposed next to the south side of W131, constructed of fieldstones of varying size. The kiln contained large quantities of partly burnt calcareous stones, but the absence of a lime layer on the kiln floor shows that the lime-production process was not completed. A rectangular opening in its southern wall may have been used to insert raw material and to feed the fire. A curved wall (W141) to the west of the kiln was probably an outer wall, enclosing the kiln. A floor (L137; Fig. 7) abutting the eastern side of the kiln and built of small and medium-sized fieldstones may be a working surface.
The Finds. Several Byzantine potsherds were found, including bowls (Fig. 8:1–7), a cooking pot (8:8) and a jug (8:9). Four glass finds (not drawn) represent common, well-known types dating from the end of the Late Roman and the Byzantine periods. They include a bowl with a hollow ring base, two wine-goblet bases of a type characterized by a hollow ring base and a cylindrical stem, and a fragment of a simple, ribbed bracelet of a D-shaped section. Similar items have been found in previously excavated settlement remains and caves at the site, at other sites in the region, and elsewhere in the country. The excavation yielded two bronze coins, one dating from 383–395 CE (Antioch mint; IAA 173183) and the other a follis of Justinian I dating from 527–538 CE (Constantinople mint; IAA 173185). A silver Ottoman coin of Mahmud II from 1835 CE (Qustantiniyya mint; IAA 173184) was also found.