Two excavation squares, c. 8 m apart, were opened alongside the northern bank of Nahal Gallim (Sqs I, II; Fig. 1). In Square I, the remains of a mosaic-paved treading floor of a Byzantine industrial winepress were uncovered, and in Square II, a segment of an early twentieth-century CE aqueduct was revealed. Extensive salvage excavations were previously and subsequently carried out in the immediate vicinity (Segal 2006; Segal 2007; Eisenberg 2022).
Square I (5 × 5 m). The excavation uncovered part of a mosaic floor (L306; 2.25 × 3.30 m; Fig. 2) composed of white tesserae (tessera size c. 2 × 2 cm) laid diagonally to the walls. The mosaic was meticulously laid and characteristic of Roman- and Byzantine-period winepress treading floors. The floor was demarcated on the north and south by two walls (W304, W305) that were preserved for a single course. A surface soil accumulation yielded mostly mixed finds dating from the Byzantine period to the mid-twentieth century CE.
Square II (2.5 × 10.0 m). Part of an aqueduct (L300; length 10 m, width 0.65 m) built of reddish ceramic pipe segments (diam. c. 0.2 m) and encased within two fieldstone walls and roofing, was uncovered (Figs. 3, 4). The external sides of the two walls retained traces of fieldstone lining, probably to prevent the aqueduct from being washed away by the stream. Near the western balk of the square, three partially dressed ashlars, probably in secondary use, were incorporated in the walls; their function and context are unclear. The square yielded mixed ceramic finds, many dating from the late Mamluk and Ottoman periods.
The aqueduct is the third and the most recent of three aqueducts originating at the ‘Ein Qedem spring (Fig. 5), c. 2 km east of the current excavation. Early twentieth-century records of this aqueduct and the excavation of a long segment in 2000–2001 enable dating its construction to the end of the first decade of the twentieth century CE (Segal 2006: Aqueduct 180 and description of surveys). At ‘Ein Qedem, a pump house and an iron pipe replaced the ceramic pipe in the early twentieth century.
The excavation augments our knowledge of the Byzantine and Mamluk–Ottoman settlement at Tirat Karmel. Large areas of Tirat Karmel have not yet been excavated since they are covered in alluvium from Nahal Gallim, making it difficult to determine the plan and nature of the settlement between the Roman and the Ottoman periods.