Site 1. Four channels hewn in qirton (length of each channel c. 80 m with a space of 10 m between them, width c. 3 m, depth 1.0–1.5 m; Fig. 2) and two heaps of earth and stones east and west of them were documented. Each channel contains two narrow passages (width 0.7 m) that divided it. Arched-shaped niches (0.45×0.45 m, depth c. 0.6 m below surface; Fig. 3) are hewn on the sides of the channels; about 100 niches are hewn in each channel.
Pottery vessels dating to the Roman period (not drawn) were identified at the site and particularly at the foot of it, including a Kefar Hananya Type 3A cooking pot that dates to the first century CE, Kefar Hananya Type 1C Galilean bowls that date to the second–third centuries CE and Sikhin type kraters dating to the mid-second–mid-fourth centuries CE. In addition, fragments of jars common to the Galilee in the Roman period during the second–fifth centuries CE and several fragments of amphorae that have not yet been identified were found.
Development work was recently conducted at the site and an area was prepared for cultivation. No architectural finds were discovered save an ashlar-built wall located at the bottom of the site. Nine long symmetric buildings (length 17 m, width 5.5 m) with an opening in their narrow side were described at the site in the past. Furthermore, two–three small square rooms were found on a high bedrock terrace. Gal
(below) believes these are the remains of the Roman army camp.
Site 3. Three rock-hewn ovens (diam. of each oven c. 0.7 m; Fig. 4) with rock-cut shelves (width 0.2 m) inside them were found on the eastern part of a hill. Stoking channels (width c. 0.2–0.3 m) extend outward from the ovens.
The ceramic finds on the hillside near Sites 2 and 3 are similar to those found at Site 1 and it therefore seems they are from the Roman period. No remains of a Roman camp according to known military standards were found in the survey and the channels are not fortified installations characteristic of this period. Nevertheless, it seems that the array of hewn channels on the southern side was part of an installation relating to activity on behalf of a single organized public authority. If this is a hewn Roman complex, it may have been used for burial and the cremated remains of the dead were placed in the niches. It also seems that the rock-hewn ovens are evidence of a public installation, probably for baking, and it is possible they were part of a military installation. This find substantiates the interpretation that the row of buildings on the hillside was part of an army camp. Although some of the pottery is not exactly related to the aforementioned sites, it can be suggested on the basis of the survey finds alone that the installations and sites date to the Roman period and the possibility that a unit of the Roman army was garrisoned there should not be negated, as is mentioned in historical sources (Oppenheimer 2006
:417–419; Tosefta, Shabbat Chapter 13, Halacha 9; Jerusalem Talmud, Pesahim, Chapter 4, Page 9).